|KIM, WOOHYUN - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
|ATUL, CHAUDHARI - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
Submitted to: CRC Press
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/7/2019
Publication Date: 11/22/2019
Citation: Kim, W., Atul, C., Lillehoj, H.S. 2019. Host immunity in coccidiosis. CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02732.
Interpretive Summary: Avian coccidiosis is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of livestock and poultry and pose a significant economic threat to growing animal industry. Prophylactic medication that has been successful to reduce coccidiosis and dramatically increased the efficiency of commercial livestock and poultry production over the last 50 years is no longer applicable due to governmental regulatory changes to meet the rising consumers' demand for antibiotic-free meat production. Therefore, new strategies for coccidiosis prevention and treatment will need to be developed for sustainable commercial meat production in antibiotic-free era. In this review, ARS scientists discuss comparative host immune response to Eimeria parasites in mammals and poultry. Mammalian and avian immune system is complex and possesses both innate and adaptive, as well as humoral and cell-mediated, arms of immunity. Understanding animal species difference in host-parasite immunobiology in coccidiosis will facilitate species-specific prevention and treatment strategies against this complex parasitic infections.
Technical Abstract: A major challenge for developing new disease prevention and control strategies against Coccidiosis is determining the nature of protective host immune response, virulence factors associated with parasite pathogenesis and the best mode of vaccine delivery to induce protective immunity against all variants of Eimeria parasites. Because of limited immune reagents to identify various effector components of cell mediated immunity, especially in poultry which represents a major effector arm of host immune system against Coccidiosis, there has been very limited development in our understanding of host immunity against many pathogens including coccidia especially understanding gut immune system and local immune response to enteric pathogens. This limitation in understanding parasite and host biology hinders progress in vaccine development. We've reviewed various aspects of host immune response against Eimeria in different animal species and identify major component of host immune system that is involved in protection with hope that better understanding of host-parasite immunobiology will facilitate the development of logical prevention and treatment strategies in the ear of antibiotic-free animal production.