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ARS Home » Plains Area » Kerrville, Texas » Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory » LAPRU » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #356856

Research Project: Cattle Fever Tick Control and Eradication

Location: Livestock Arthropod Pests Research

Title: Public-private partnership experience enabling translational research for anti-tick vaccine used in integrated Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus tick eradication in the United States of America

Author
item Perez De Leon, Adalberto - Beto
item Mahan, Suman - Zoetis
item Messenger, Matthew - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item Ellis, Dee - Texas A&M University
item Varner, Kevin - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item Schwartz, Andy - Texas Animal Health Commission
item Baca, Dan - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item Andreotti, Renato - Embrapa
item Rodriguez Valle, Manuel - University Of Queensland
item Rosario Cruz, Rodrigo - Universidad Autónoma De Guerrero
item Dominguez Garcia, Delia - Universidad Autónoma De Guerrero
item Comas Pagan, Myrna - Puerto Rico Department Of Agriculture
item Oliver Canabal, Carmen - Puerto Rico Department Of Agriculture
item Urdaz, Jose - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item Collazo Mattei, Francisco - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item Soltero, Fred - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item Guerrero, Felicito - Felix
item Miller, Robert

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/26/2017
Publication Date: 8/22/2018
Citation: Perez De Leon, A.A., Mahan, S., Messenger, M., Ellis, D., Varner, K., Schwartz, A., Baca, D., Andreotti, R., Rodriguez Valle, M., Rosario Cruz, R., Dominguez Garcia, D., Comas Pagan, M., Oliver Canabal, C., Urdaz, J., Collazo Mattei, F., Soltero, F., Guerrero, F., Miller, R. 2018. Public-private partnership experience enabling translational research for anti-tick vaccine used in integrated Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus tick eradication in the United States of America. Book Chapter. 5:275-298.

Interpretive Summary: Cattle fever ticks (CFT), scientifically known as Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus, transmit the microbes causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. These invasive ticks were eradicated from the United States of America (USA) in 1943 through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP), with the exception of a Permanent Quarantine Zone (PQZ) in south Texas on the border with Mexico. CFT and bovine babesiosis remain established and affect livestock health and production in other countries located in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Of the two CFT, R. microplus, commonly known as the southern cattle fever tick, is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock where it is established. Intense use of pesticides in CFT-infested areas has led to pesticide resistance and significant economic losses to producers. Novel and safer technologies that can be integrated with existing control methods are required to manage CFT populations and associated diseases in the long term. In the case of the USA, the need for a systems approach was identified to keep the national cattle herd CFT-free through the integrated use of technologies, including anti-tick vaccines, to eliminate CFT outbreaks. Anti-tick vaccines can be used together with veterinary pharmaceuticals to enhance livestock protection where tick populations are established. Efforts of a public-private partnership that developed, and obtained an experimental use permit issued to a multinational animal health company for a novel anti-CFT vaccine formulation of the antigen known as Bm86 to be integrated as part of operations by the CFTEP are described here. Statutes more than 100 years old governing operations of the CFTEP were adapted to eliminate CFT infestations and mitigate the risk of future CFT outbreaks in the PQZ by adding the immunization of cattle with the Bm86-based vaccine as part of the operational protocol. This achievement enabled the experimental use of the Bm86-based vaccine to immunize beef and dairy cattle as part of the Research Project for Integrated Control of the Southern Cattle Fever Tick in Puerto Rico. Our collective work documenting anti-cattle tick vaccine discovery research is described to illustrate how international cooperation supported research on integrated management for the CFTEP. Public-private partnerships may be a way to develop novel anti-tick vaccines in other parts of the world for use as part of integrated tick management strategies.

Technical Abstract: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus are invasive tick species and vectors of microbes causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis that were declared eradicated from the United States of America in 1943 through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. These tick disease vectors remain established and affect livestock health and production in other countries located in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. R. microplus is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock where it is established. Synthetic acaricides are used intensely to kill R. microplus and R. annulatus, but this leads eventually to the problem of acaricide resistance and other associated undesired effects. Novel and safer technologies that can be integrated with existing control methods are required to manage R. microplus and R. annulatus populations and associated diseases sustainably. In the case of the United States of America, the need for a systems approach was identified to keep the national cattle herd free of bovine babesiosis through the integrated use of technologies, including anti-tick vaccines, to eliminate outbreaks of R. microplus and R. annulatus. Anti-tick vaccines containing the recombinant antigen Bm86 are veterinary biologics used together with veterinary pharmaceuticals such as acaricides to enhance livestock protection where populations of R. microplus and R. annulatus are established. But, access to Gavac™, the only anti-tick vaccine commercially available and used to control R. microplus and R. annulatus, is limited to certain national veterinary products markets, excluding the United States of America. Efforts of a public-private partnership that developed, and obtained an experimental use permit issued to the animal health company Zoetis for a novel Bm86-based vaccine formulation to be integrated as part of operations by the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program are described here. Statutes more than 100 years old governing operations of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program were adapted to eliminate R. microplus and R. annulatus infestations in cattle and mitigate the risk of future tick outbreaks in the Permanent Quarantine Zone in south Texas on the border with Mexico by adding immunization with the Bm86-based vaccine as part of the operational protocol. This achievement enabled the experimental use of the Zoetis Bm-86 based vaccine to immunize beef and dairy cattle as part of the Research Project for Integrated Control of the Southern Cattle Fever Tick in Puerto Rico. Our collective work documenting anti-cattle tick vaccine discovery research is described to illustrate how international cooperation supported research on integrated management for the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. Public-private partnerships may be a way to develop novel anti-tick vaccines in other parts of the world for use as part of integrated R. microplus management strategies.