|BAMBERG, JOHN - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)|
Submitted to: International Association for Plant Tissue Culture & Biotechnology Congress
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/1/2017
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Globally, potato (Solanum L.) is the fourth most important food crop with a market value of $12 billion. As a vegetatively propagated and grown crop, in vitro culturing methods are the most practical tools for crop improvement and safeguarding the Solanum genetic resources for food security, research and cultivar development. Outlined are the major applications areas of in vitro techniques. Somatic embryogenesis plays a pivotal role in potato genetic transformation and generating artificial seeds. Potato protoplast fusion facilitates intra and interspecific crossing for potato improvement. Micropropagation of shoot segments together with in vitro tuberization provides a means for medium-term germplasm storage and an easy way for distributing germplasm. Aseptic shoot tips are the basic plant form used for cryogenic storage. Culturing potato shoot tips (PST) on medium containing ribavirin, exposure to thermotherapy or in vitro cultivation of meristem shoots have been the major techniques for virus and other pathogen elimination. PST culture is also practical for potato germplasm international exchange. The U.S. Potato Genebank preserves about 6000 potato accessions with >1000 accession kept in vitro. The USDA-ARS, NLGRP keeps >350 potato accessions cryogenically stored. The objective is to protect the most valuable and vulnerable genotypes of the U.S. potato collection and holding Plant Variety Protection specimens developed or deposited in the USA. Yearly, ca. 70-80 potato accessions are added to the cryopreserved collection.