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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Beltsville, Maryland (BARC) » Beltsville Agricultural Research Center » Systematic Entomology Laboratory » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #349900

Research Project: Systematics of Flies of Importance in Agroecosystems and the Environment

Location: Systematic Entomology Laboratory

Title: Case 3772 – Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Insecta, Diptera, TEPHRITIDAE): Proposed precedence over Toxotrypana Gerstaecker, 1860

item Norrbom, Allen
item BARR, NORMAN - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item KERR, P. - California Department Of Food And Agriculture
item MENGUAL, XIMO - Universidad Peruana

Submitted to: The Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/13/2018
Publication Date: 9/15/2018
Citation: Norrbom, A.L., Barr, N., Kerr, P.H., Mengual, X. 2018. Case 3772 – Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Insecta, Diptera, TEPHRITIDAE): Proposed precedence over Toxotrypana Gerstaecker, 1860. The Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 75:165-169.

Interpretive Summary: Fruit flies include some of the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The majority of the pest species are exotic and are threats to agriculture in the United States. Most of the important pest species that occur in the American tropics and subtropics are classified in a group named Anastrepha, which includes about 300 species in total. Seven species, including a pest of papaya, have been classified in another group named Toxotrypana. These two groups appear superficially distinctive, mainly because the species of Toxotrypana are wasp mimics. Based on a recent molecular based study of the evolutionary relationships of these two groups and previous morphological studies showing their similarity in genitalic characters, it is now clear that Toxotrypana arose within Anastrepha and that these two groups should be combined. Following the standard rules for naming animal groups, the older name, Toxotrypana, would be used. But due to the much greater economic importance of Anastrepha, the authors have written this application to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to recognize Anastrepha as the valid name. If approved, this application will prevent unnecessary name changes for many pest species of Anastrepha and prevent confusion in scientific communication. These names are used frequently by APHIS-PPQ and other regulatory agencies responsible quarantine regulations and for detection programs to prevent establishment of pest species in the United States.

Technical Abstract: The purpose of this application is to conserve the current usage of the well-established genus-group name Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 for a genus of Neotropical fruit flies by reversal of precedence with its synonym, Toxotrypana Gerstaecker, 1860, under the plenary power of the Commission, in the interest of nomenclatural stability. One species of Toxotrypana is an agricultural pest, but the multiple major pest species currently placed in Anastrepha have far greater impact on numerous commercial and subsistence fruit crops. Changing their names would cause tremendous nomenclatural instability and disrupt scientific research and communication regarding their taxonomy, basic biology, management, and regulation.