|OH, SUNGTAEK - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)|
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/16/2018
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Multiple challenges confront the rising demand for poultry food products, including governmental restrictions on the use of antibiotic growth promoters, high-density production conditions, waste management, and the emergence of infectious pathogens, particularly those that cause intestinal diseases. There is little doubt that in-feed antibiotics has dramatically increased the efficiency of commercial poultry production over the last 50 years. However, antibiotic usage in chickens has raised consumer concerns regarding chemical residues in the poultry products that they consume, and has directly led to the appearance of drug resistance among avian pathogens that has the potential to be transferred to microorganisms that infect humans. Much interest, therefore, has focused on the development of alternative, antibiotic-free methods of commercial poultry production. For poultry, two major infectious diseases, coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis, are posing major challenges as governmental drug regulations rise. Because these two infections cost industry more than $ 6 billion economic losses, there is an urgent need to develop antibiotic alternatives to reduce the negative consequences caused by these infections. Host-pathogen interaction leading to protective immunity in coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis is complex and has not been well characterized although many aspects of innate and adaptive immunity are involved. Furthermore, for necrotic enteritis, many toxins are involved in gut damage, decreased nutrient absorption, inefficient feed utilization, and impaired growth rate, which, in severe cases, may lead to mortality. Various strategies to reduce and replace antibiotics can be broadly classified into those that are directly cytotoxic against infectious agents, including hyperimmune antibodies, antimicrobial peptides, and bacteriophages, and those that augment host immunity, including phytochemicals, adjuvants, and next-generation vaccines. Furthermore, a combination of dietary clays mixed with a fermentable fiber and an organic acid improved the growth performance and mitigated the negative effects of necrotic enteritis. This talk will highlight few new antibiotic alternative approaches to protect against avian coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis.