Location: Agroecosystem Management ResearchTitle: Antimicrobial resistance and the environment: Assessment of advances, gaps and recommendations for agriculture, aquaculture and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Author
|Topp, Edward - Agriculture And Agri-Food Canada|
|Larsson, D.g. Joakim - University Of Gothenburg|
|Van Den Eede, Chris - Zoetis|
|Virta, Marko P.j. - University Of Helsinki|
Submitted to: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/21/2017
Publication Date: 3/19/2018
Citation: Topp, E., Larsson, D., Miller, D.N., Van Den Eede, C., Virta, M. 2018. Antimicrobial resistance and the environment: Assessment of advances, gaps and recommendations for agriculture, aquaculture and pharmaceutical manufacturing. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 94:fix185.
Interpretive Summary: The EDAR4 symposium held at Michigan State University in August 2017 follows the EDAR3 symposium held in Germany in 2015. Key issues concerning agriculture, aquaculture, and antibiotic manufacturing were deliberated in a roundtable discussion. The authors of this paper were the roundtable participants, but the approximately 100 individuals in attendance also contributed greatly to the deliberations. Informed by this discussion, this paper is intended to provide a perspective on where we have been, and where we need to go on these matters.
Technical Abstract: A roundtable discussion held at the 4th International Symposium on the Environmental Dimension of Antibiotic Resistance (EDAR4) considered key issues concerning the impact on the environment of antibiotic use in agriculture and aquaculture, and emissions from antibiotic manufacturing. The critical control points for reducing environmental emissions of antibiotics from terrestrial food production systems are antibiotic stewardship, and the pre-treatment of manures and sewage sludges to reduce the burden of antibiotic resistant bacteria prior to land application. Antibiotics are added directly to fish and shellfish production sites, representing a direct route of contamination of the aquatic environment. Vaccination offers a means of reducing the need for antibiotic use in high value (eg. salmon) production systems. Consumer and regulatory pressure will over time lead to reduction of the sometimes very high antibiotic concentrations found in industrial effluents. Research priorities include the development of technologies and practices that will allow effective reduction in antibiotic use, and evidence-based standards for antibiotic residues in effluents entering the environment. All stakeholders in the distribution and use of antibiotics need to be aware of the threat of AMR, and best practice in agriculture, aquaculture and pharmaceutical manufacturing for slowing its development. Research and policy development on AMR mitigation must be cognizant of the varied challenges facing high and low income countries.