Location: Animal Parasitic Diseases LaboratoryTitle: Porcine cluster of differentiation (CD) Markers 2017 Update
Submitted to: Research in Veterinary Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/23/2018
Publication Date: 6/18/2018
Citation: Dawson, H.D., Lunney, J.K. 2018. Porcine cluster of differentiation (CD) Markers 2017 Update. Research in Veterinary Science. 118:199-246.
Interpretive Summary: Improved technologies and genomics have contributed to dramatic increases in our knowledge of the immune molecules regulating interactions involved in successful infectious disease and vaccination responses. The international community has established cluster of differentiation (CD) markers for identifying individual molecules expressed on immune cell subsets. This paper summarizes the latest information on swine CD markers and their amino acid sequence homology to human CD markers. It presents documented reactivity of monoclonal and polyclonal antibody and other reagents with swine CD markers as well as proven cell subset expression. Overall, the data presented on reagents to quantitate CD marker expression will be used by researchers to enhance their swine immune studies, leading to improved understanding of swine health and disease and of the pig as a biomedical model.
Technical Abstract: Pigs are a major source of food worldwide; preventing and treating their infectious diseases is essential, requiring a thorough understanding of porcine immunity. The use of pigs as models for human physiology is a growing area; progress in this area has been limited because the immune toolkit is not robust. The international community has established cluster of differentiation (CD) markers for assessing cells involved in immunity as well as characterizing numerous other cells like stem cells. Overall, for humans 419 proteins have been designated as CD markers, each reacting with a defined set of antibodies (Abs). This paper summarizes current knowledge of swine CD markers and identifies 359 corresponding CD proteins in pigs. A broad-based literature and vendor search was conducted to identify defined sets of monoclonal (mAbs) and polyclonal Abs (pAbs) reacting with porcine CD markers along with other reagents (fusion proteins, ELISAs, PCR assays, and gene edited cell and pig models). This process identified over 800 reagents that are reportedly reactive with 266 pig CD markers. Despite this number, there is a great need to develop and characterize additional CD marker reagents, particularly mAbs, for pig research. There are numerous high priority targets: reagents for the characterization of porcine innate lymphoid cells, polarized macrophages and T regulatory cells and for the detection of porcine CD45 isoforms. Overall, improved technologies and genomics have contributed to dramatic increases in our knowledge of the pig, its immune system, disease and vaccine responses, and utility as a biomedical model. The development of more CD reagents will clearly advance these initiatives.