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Research Project: Plant and Microbial Genetic Resource Preservation and Quality Assessment

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Title: Establishing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genetic resources for in vitro storage and cryopreservation

Author
item Jenderek, Maria
item LEDO DA SILVA, ANA - EMBRAPA
item Staats, Elise
item Ayala-Silva, Tomas

Submitted to: American Society of Horticulture Science Meeting
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/27/2016
Publication Date: 8/8/2016
Citation: Jenderek, M.M., Ledo Da Silva, A., Staats, E.R., Ayala Silva, T. 2016. Establishing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genetic resources for in vitro storage and cryopreservation. American Society of Horticulture Science Meeting. August 8-11, 2016, Atlanta, GA.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is used to produce sugar, a variety of alcoholic beverages, bagasse and industrial ethanol utilized in making fuel. In production fields, sugarcane is propagated vegetatively and currently, the crop’s genetic resources are also preserved as field plantings. The National Plant Germplasm System, USDA-ARS maintains 18 species of Saccharum with a total of over 2,400 accessions. To secure the collection from stress factors and invertible loss, efforts are made to introduce the germplasm into in vitro culture and cryopreservation. Apical cane segments of S. officinarum, S. robustum and S. sinensis were sterilized in 70 % isopropanol, subsequently in 2.5 % sodium hypochlorite and rinsed with sterile water. Excised shoots were cultured on Murashige Skoog medium at 25+2oC, at 16 hours photoperiod. Microbial contamination and phenolic compound secretion were the main visible factors preventing shoot development. After 3-4 weeks, contamination-free cultures developed an average of 2 shoots. In the next three subculture intervals (each lasting 4 weeks) and an addition of antioxidants to media (citric acid 100 mgL-1 or L-cysteine 100 mgL-1, or polyvinylpyrrolidone 300 mgL-1, or L-glutathione 50 mgL-1), the number increased to 8-12 shoots/culture. In comparison to the control, some of the antioxidants tested had a positive effect increasing the number of shoots and their vigor; however, the effectiveness was genotype specific. Citric acid was the most effective antioxidant in sugarcane cryopreservation. In our studies only ca. 25 % of explants produced clean and propagating cultures, and the in vitro establishing method requires further improvements. Introducing field-grown sugarcane plants in vitro is daunting; nevertheless, the effort is necessary to secure Saccharum spp. genetic resources for food and industrial supply, research and distribution.