|Jones, Vince - Washington State University|
|Mills, Nicholas - University Of California|
|Brunner, Jay - Washington State University|
|Beers, Elizabeth - Washington State University|
|Shearer, Peter - Oregon State University|
Submitted to: Pest Management Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/23/2009
Publication Date: 9/3/2009
Citation: Jones, V., Unruh, T.R., Horton, D.R., Mills, N., Brunner, J., Beers, E., Shearer, P. 2009. Tree fruit IPM programs in the Western United States: the challenge of enhancing biological control through intensive management. Pest Management Science. 65:1305-1310.
Interpretive Summary: Regulatory changes leading to modifications in the insect control programs associated with production of apple and pear in the Pacific Northwest has prompted efforts to more efficiently use biological control in orchards for managing pests. Researchers at USDA-ARS Wapato in Washington, in collaboration with scientists from Washington State University, University of California, and Oregon State University, have begun to explore the challenges associated with developing the needed biological control tactics. These efforts have shown that adoption of practices that lead to enhanced biological control in orchards will require approaches that combine new technologies, changes in perceptions of the grower industry, and outreach efforts by the research community. This information will help apple and pear growers more effectively apply principles of IPM and biological control in managing orchard pests, while lowering dependence upon chemical insecticides.
Technical Abstract: The work of Stern and colleagues on integrated control has had long-lasting effects on development of IPM programs in orchard systems. Management systems based solely on pesticides have proven to be unstable, and the success of IPM systems in orchards has been driven by the conservation of natural enemies, combined with pesticides and mating disruption. Regulatory issues have caused modification of these IPM programs, leading to newly levels of instability caused by replacement of older chemicals with newer chemicals. This new instability has prompted a new look at efforts at conserving and enhancing natural enemies in orchard systems. The developing programs will continue to use the core principles of Stern, but go beyond them to incorporate changes in society, technology, and information transfer.