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Research Project: Improving Immunity, Health, and Well-Being in Cattle and Swine

Location: Livestock Issues Research

Title: Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation to lactating sows on growth and indicators of stress in post-weaned pig

Author
item Mcafee, John - University Of Tennessee
item Kattesh, Hank - University Of Tennessee
item Lindemann, Merlin - University Of Kentucky
item Voy, Brynn - University Of Tennessee
item Kojima, Cheryl - University Of Tennessee
item Carroll, Jeffery - Jeff Carroll
item Sanchez, Nicole
item Gillespie, Barbara - University Of Tennessee
item Saxton, Arnold - University Of Tennessee

Submitted to: Journal of Animal Science Supplement
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/21/2016
Publication Date: 12/23/2016
Citation: Mcafee, J.M., Kattesh, H.G., Lindemann, M.D., Voy, B.H., Kojima, C.J., Carroll, J.A., Sanchez, N.C., Gillespie, B.E., Saxton, A.M. 2016. Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation to lactating sows on growth and indicators of stress in post-weaned pig. Journal of Animal Science Supplement. 2017. J.Anim.Sci. 95(Supplement 1):30.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Dietary n-3 PUFA are precursors for lipid metabolites that reduce inflammation. Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that enriching the sow diet in n-3 PUFA during late gestation and throughout lactation reduces stress and inflammation, and promotes growth in weaned pigs. A protected fish oil product (PFO; Gromega) was used to enrich the diet in n-3 PUFA. Experiment 1, time-bred gilts (n = 14) were fed a gestation and lactation diet supplemented with 0 (control; n = 5), 0.25 (n = 4), 0.5 (n = 4) or 1% (n = 5) PFO from 101 +/- 2 d of gestation to d 16 of lactation. Adding 1% PFO to the diet increased the n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in colostrum and milk compared to controls (P = 0.05). A subsequent experiment was performed to determine if supplementing the sows' diet with 1% PFO improved growth and reduced circulating markers of acute inflammation and stress in their offspring. Plasma was harvested from piglets (16/treatment group) on d 0 (d of weaning) and d 1 and d 3 postweaning. Pigs from the 1% PFO treatment group weighed more (P = 0.03) on d 3 postweaning and had a greater (P < 0.01) n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in plasma on each day sampled compared to 0% PFO controls. There was an overall treatment effect (P = 0.02) on plasma total cortisol, with lesser concentrations in pigs on the 1% PFO diet. Plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) concentrations were not different between treatment groups but were lesser (P < 0.001) on d 1 and d 3 when compared to d 0. The resultant free cortisol index [FCI (cortisol/CBG)] was lesser (P = 0.02) on d1 and 3 for pigs from the 1% treatment group compared to the controls. An ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge of whole blood collected on d 0 and 1 was used to determine if 1% PFO attenuated release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha). Pigs from the 1% PFO treatment group tended (P = 0.098) to have a lesser mean concentrations of TNF-alpha in response to LPS compared to controls. These results suggest that providing a PFO supplement as 1% of the diet to sows beginning in late gestation and during lactation can increase the n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in their offspring, which may improve growth and reduce the acute physiological stress response in the pigs postweaning.