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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Beltsville, Maryland (BARC) » Beltsville Agricultural Research Center » Animal Biosciences & Biotechnology Laboratory » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #334807

Research Project: Functional Genomics Approaches for Controlling Diseases of Poultry

Location: Animal Biosciences & Biotechnology Laboratory

Title: Various alternatives-to-antibiotics for maximizing the efficiency of growth performance and feed efficiency in poultry: a review

Author
item GADDE, U - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
item KIM, W.H - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
item OH, S.T - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
item Lillehoj, Hyun

Submitted to: Animal Health Research Reviews
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/4/2017
Publication Date: 5/2/2017
Citation: Gadde, U., Kim, W., Oh, S., Lillehoj, H.S. 2017. Various alternatives-to-antibiotics for maximizing the efficiency of growth performance and feed efficiency in poultry: a review. Animal Health Research Reviews. 9:1-20. doi: 10.1017/S1466252316000207.

Interpretive Summary: Despite the well-demonstrated beneficial effects of antibiotics in improving the animal growth and health last 50 years, there has been increasing concerns on the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture on rising drug resistance issues in human. Because several studies suggested that there might be a link between the practice of using sub-therapeutic antibiotics and the development of antimicrobial resistance, there is a timely need to develop antibiotic alternatives for sustainable agriculture. This comprehensive review written by ARS scientists will discuss the development of various antibiotic alternatives from recent literature. This review also describes the potential for the various alternatives available to increase animal productivity and help poultry perform to their genetic potential under existing commercial conditions. In addition, a brief description of the mechanism of action, efficacy, and advantages and disadvantages of their use are also presented. Optimal combinations of various alternatives coupled with good management and husbandry practices will be the key to maximize performance and maintain animal productivity while we move forward with the ultimate goal of reducing antibiotic use in the animal industry. This review will provide excellent strategies to reduce the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and will help scientists and veterinarians at the research institutions and poultry farms.

Technical Abstract: With the increase in regulations regarding the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) and the rise in consumer demand for poultry products from “Raised Without Antibiotics” or “No Antibiotics Ever” flocks, the quest for alternative products or approaches has intensified in recent years. A great deal of research has focused on the development of antibiotic alternatives to maintain or improve poultry health and performance. This review describes the potential for the various alternatives available to increase animal productivity and help poultry perform to their genetic potential under existing commercial conditions. The classes of alternatives described include probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, organic acids, enzymes, phytogenics, antimicrobial peptides, hyperimmune egg antibodies, bacteriophages, and clay. A brief description of the mechanism of action, efficacy, and advantages and disadvantages of their use are also presented. Though the beneficial effects of many of the alternatives developed have been well demonstrated, the general consensus is that these products lack consistency and the results vary greatly from farm to farm. Furthermore, their mode of action need to be better defined. Optimal combinations of various alternatives coupled with good management and husbandry practices will be the key to maximize performance and maintain animal productivity while we move forward with the ultimate goal of reducing antibiotic use in the animal industry.