|GOUGHNOUR, ROBERT - Washington State University|
Submitted to: Florida Entomologist
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/22/2016
Publication Date: 3/1/2017
Citation: Yee, W.L., Goughnour, R. 2017. Development of Rhagoletis pomonella and Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae)in mango and other tropical and temperate fruit in the laboratory. Florida Entomologist. 100(1):157-161.
Interpretive Summary: Apple maggot and western cherry fruit flies are quarantine pests of apple and sweet cherry, respectively, in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S., but the flies have narrow host ranges that may reduce their threat to a wider range of fruit commodities. Personnel at the USDA-ARS Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory in Wapato, WA, and Washington State University in Vancouver, WA tested the hypothesis that these flies do not utilize tropical fruit as hosts. In WA, apple maggot flies infested only 1% of mangoes and 0% of papayas hung in trees compared with 49% of apples. Cherry fruit fly infested only 6% of mangoes and 0% of papayas versus 33–73% of cherry and plum in the laboratory. Even though infestations occurred in some tropical fruit, based on specific chilling and other climatic requirements, the flies are highly unlikely to survive in tropical environments where these fruit grow.
Technical Abstract: Temperate fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) have narrow host ranges relative to those of tropical fruit flies, suggesting they will not attack or are incapable of developing in most novel fruit. Here we tested the hypothesis that apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), and western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, whose normal hosts belong to the Rosaceae, will not utilize mango (Mangifera indica L.; Anacardiaceae) and other non-rosaceous tropical fruit. Of fruit hung in infested apple trees, at least 49% of apples (n = 77) produced R. pomonella puparia, while only 1% of mangoes (n = 291) and 0% of papayas (Carica papaya L.; Caricaceae) and 8 other tropical fruit produced puparia. In no-choice laboratory tests in 1.9-liter containers, 33% of apples (n = 131), 7% of mangoes (n = 118), and 7% of papayas (n = 14) produced R. pomonella puparia; adult flies also eclosed from puparia from mango and papaya. Female R. pomonella landed ~4–9 times more often on apple than mango. When exposed to R. indifferens in no-choice laboratory tests in 1.9-liter containers, 6% of mangoes (n = 32) and 0% of papayas (n = 23) versus 33–73% (sweet cherry, plum, and nectarine) and 0% (peach) of rosaceous fruit (Prunus spp.) produced puparia; no eggs were detected in mango and papaya. Contrary to our hypothesis, larvae of R. pomonella and R. indifferens have greater flexibility in fruit use than predicted and can develop in some tropical fruit. However, based on specific chilling and other climatic requirements of R. pomonella and R. indifferens, the flies are highly unlikely to survive in tropical environments where these fruit grow.