|BEN MOUSSA, ISSAM EDDINE - University Of Tuscia|
|MAZZONI, VALERIO - Fondazione Edmund Mach|
|VALENTINI, FRANCO - Mediterranean Agronomic Institue Of Bari (MAI-BARI)|
|YASEEN, THAER - Mediterranean Agronomic Institue Of Bari (MAI-BARI)|
|LORUSSO, DONATO - Mediterranean Agronomic Institue Of Bari (MAI-BARI)|
|SPERANZA, STEFANO - University Of Tuscia|
|DIGIARO, MICHELE - Mediterranean Agronomic Institue Of Bari (MAI-BARI)|
|VARVARO, LEONARD - University Of Tuscia|
|D'ONGHIA, ANNA MARIA - Mediterranean Agronomic Institue Of Bari (MAI-BARI)|
Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/12/2016
Publication Date: 9/6/2016
Citation: Ben Moussa, I., Mazzoni, V., Valentini, F., Yaseen, T., Lorusso, D., Speranza, S., Digiaro, M., Varvaro, L., Krugner, R., D'Onghia, A. 2016. Seasonal fluctuations of sap-feeding insect species infected by Xylella fastidiosa in apulian olive groves of southern Italy. Journal of Economic Entomology. 109(4):1512-1518.
Interpretive Summary: Xylella fastidiosa is an economically important bacterial pathogen of several commercial crops in South, Central, and North America. Xylella fastidiosa is transmitted from plant to plant by sharpshooters and spittlebugs. The number and identity of insects responsible for spread of X. fastidiosa vary by crop and locality. X. fastidiosa was found recently in olive trees in southern Italy; quarantine measures were established to counteract its spread in the Euro-Mediterranean area. However, little is known about which insect species may serve as vectors of X. fastidiosa in olive orchards in southern Italy. A two-year study was conducted to determine identity and seasonal abundance of Auchenorryncha species (i.e., cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, planthoppers, and spittlebugs) in olive orchards. A total of 15 species were captured, identified, and tested for presence of X. fastidiosa. The bacterium was detected from Philaenus spumarius, Neophilaenus campestris, and Euscelis lineolatus. Philaneous spumarius was the dominant species during most of the year, with highest adult abundance in summer months. These results will facilitate development of control strategies for X. fastidiosa and associated insect vectors species.
Technical Abstract: A study on seasonal abundance and infectivity by Xylella fastidiosa of Auchenorrhyncha species in the Apulia region of Italy was conducted to identify ideal periods for monitoring and adoption of potential control measures against insect vectors. Adult populations of Auchenorrhyncha species were monitored monthly over a two-year period from five olive groves. A total of 15 species were captured, identified, and tested for presence of X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For three species, Philaenus spumarius, Neophilaenus campestris, and Euscelis lineolatus, positive reactions to X. fastidiosa were obtained, on average, in 16.3, 15.9 and 18.4% of adult insects, respectively. Philaneous spumarius was the dominant species (39.8% of total Auchenorrhyncha captured) with the highest adult abundance in summer months. Adult P. spumarius and N. campestris were first detected between March and May in both years, and all insects tested during these periods (year 1: n = 42, year 2: n = 132) gave negative reactions to X. fastidiosa by PCR. Similarly, first adults of E. lineolatus that appeared from October to November (year 1: n = 20, year 2: n= 15) tested negative for presence of X. fastidiosa. Given the lack of transstadial and transovarial transmission of X. fastidiosa and considering that P. spumarius is univoltine, control measures against nymphal stages of P. spumarius should be investigated as means of population suppression to reduce spread of X. fastidiosa in olive groves.