Location: Livestock Arthropod Pests ResearchTitle: Knockdown and lethal effects of eight commercial nonconventional and two pyrethroid insecticides against moderately permethrin-resistant adult bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)
|DONAHUE, WILLIAMM - Sierra Research Labratories|
|DONAHUE, MW - Sierra Research Labratories|
|VINSON, BE - Sierra Research Labratories|
Submitted to: Biopesticides International
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/11/2015
Publication Date: 1/1/2016
Citation: Donahue, W.A., Showler, A., Donahue, M., Vinson, B., Osbrink, W.L. 2016. Knockdown and lethal effects of eight commercial nonconventional and two pyrethroid insecticides against moderately permethrin-resistant adult bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Biopesticides International . 11:108-117.
Interpretive Summary: Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, populations have been rapidly surging in the United States during the last decade, resulting in a pest management challenge largely because resistance has occurred against most classes of commonly-used conventional synthetic insecticides. Eight nonconventional insecticides that involve active ingredients comprised of essential oils, silica gel, and other chemicals were compared with two pyrethroids, permethrin, and deltamethrin for knockdown and lethal effects in the laboratory over 4 d. Certain of the essential oils and other bioactive chemical caused knockdown within 15 min (recovery was, at most, negligible), and induced 80% to 100% mortality within a day, making them as effective as the pyrethroids. Silica gel did not cause appreciable knockdown, but nearly complete mortality was achieved within a day.
Technical Abstract: The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is undergoing a rapid resurgence in the United States during the last decade which has created a notable pest management challenge largely because the pest has developed resistance against DDT, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids, the latter class of insecticide being most commonly used today. Eight nonconventional insecticides Orange Guard (a.i., d-limonene), Natria Home Pest Control (a.i., soy bean oil and eugenol), RestAsure (a.i., sodium laurel sulfate, sodium chloride, and potassium sorbate), CedarCide (a.i. cedar oil), Essentria Bed Bug Broadcast (a.i., 2-phenethyl propionate, rosemary oil, and peppermint oil), EcoSmart Organic Home Pest Control (a.i., 2-phenethyl propionate, clove oil, rosemary oil, peppermint oil, and thyme oil), Cirkil (a.i., neem oil) and CimeXa (a.i., silica gel) were compared with the pyrethorid-based products Bonide Bedbug Killer (a.i., permethrin) and D-Force (a.i., deltamethrin) as positive controls, and water for direct contact spray knockdown and lethal effects in the laboratory over 4 d. Orange Guard, CedarCide, Essentria, EcoSmart, and Cirkil provided extensive knockdown within 15 min (recovery was, at most, negligible), and caused 80% to 100% mortality within a day making them as effective as the two pyrethroids. CimeXa did not cause appreciable knockdown, but nearly complete mortality was achieved within a day. Product effects in terms of active ingredients and factors that might increase and decrease product effectiveness, such as cimicid aggregation behavior and residual effects, are discussed.