Skip to main content
ARS Home » Plains Area » Lubbock, Texas » Cropping Systems Research Laboratory » Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #324187

Research Project: Genetic Enhancement of Sorghum as a Versatile Crop

Location: Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Research

Title: Morpho-physiological and proteome level responses to cadmium stress in sorghum

Author
item ROY, SWAPAN KUMAR - Chungbuk National University
item CHO, SEONG-WOO - Chungbuk National University
item KWON, SOO JEONG - Chungbuk National University
item KAMAL, ABU HENA - University Of Texas
item KIM, SANG-WOO - Chungbuk National University
item OH, MYEONG-WON - National Academy Of Agricultural Science
item LEE, MOON-SOON - Chungbuk National University
item CHUNG, KEUN-YOOK - Chungbuk National University
item Xin, Zhanguo
item WOO, SUN-HEE - Chungbuk National University

Submitted to: PLoS ONE
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/12/2016
Publication Date: 2/26/2016
Citation: Roy, S., Cho, S., Kwon, S., Kamal, A.M., Kim, S., Oh, M., Lee, M., Chung, K., Xin, Z., Woo, S. 2016. Morpho-physiological and proteome level responses to cadmium stress in sorghum. PLoS One. 11(2):e0150431. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150431.

Interpretive Summary: Heavy metals are among the most widespread soil contaminants, and they can cause damage to plants by inducing alterations in major physiological and metabolic processes. The effects of certain heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn), have become an important concern for plant scientists because of their harmful effects on soil plant and other cellular systems in the environment. Cd stress may cause serious morphological and physiological abnormalities in addition to altering the proteome in plants. The present study was performed to explore Cd-induced morpho-physiological alterations and their potentiality associated mechanisms in Sorghum bicolor leaves at the protein level. Ten-day-old sorghum seedlings were exposed to different concentrations (0, 100, and 150 µM) of CdCl2, and different morpho-physiological responses were recorded. The effects of Cd exposure on protein expression patterns in S. bicolor were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in samples derived from the leaves of both control and Cd-treated seedlings. The observed morphological changes revealed that the plants treated with Cd displayed dramatically altered shoot lengths, fresh weights and relative water content. In addition, the concentration of Cd was markedly increased by treatment with Cd, and the amount of Cd taken up by the shoots was significantly and directly correlated with the applied concentration of Cd. Using the 2-DE method, a total of 33 differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Of these, treatment with Cd resulted in significant increases in 15 proteins and decreases in 18 proteins. Major changes were absorbed in the levels of proteins known to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, translation and stress responses. Proteomic results revealed that Cd stress had an inhibitory effect on carbon fixation, ATP production and the regulation of protein synthesis. In addition, the up-regulation of glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450 may play an important role in Cd-related toxicity and stress responses. This study provides insights into the integrated molecular mechanisms involved in responses to Cd and the effects of Cd on the growth and physiological characteristics of sorghum seedlings. We have aimed to provide a reference describing the mechanisms involved in heavy metal damage to plants.

Technical Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) stress may cause serious morphological and physiological abnormalities in addition to altering the proteome in plants. The present study was performed to explore Cd-induced morpho-physiological alterations and their potentiality associated mechanisms in Sorghum bicolor leaves at the protein level. Ten day old sorghum seedlings were exposed to different concentrations (0, 100, and 150 µM) of CdCl2, and different morpho-physiological responses were recorded. The effects of Cd exposure on protein expression patterns in S. bicolor were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in samples derived from the leaves of both control and Cd-treated seedlings. The observed morphological changes revealed that the plants treated with Cd displayed dramatically altered shoot lengths, fresh weights and relative water content. In addition, the concentration of Cd was markedly increased by treatment with Cd, and the amount of Cd taken up by the shoots was significantly and directly correlated with the applied concentration of Cd. Using the 2-DE method, a total of 33 differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Of these, treatment with Cd resulted in significant increases in 15 proteins and decreases in 18 proteins. Major changes were absorbed in the levels of proteins known to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, translation and stress responses. Proteomic results revealed that Cd stress had an inhibitory effect on carbon fixation, ATP production and the regulation of protein synthesis. In addition, the up-regulation of glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450 may play an important role in Cd-related toxicity and stress responses. Our study provides insights into the integrated molecular mechanisms involved in responses to Cd and the effects of Cd on the growth and physiological characteristics of sorghum seedlings. We have aimed to provide a reference describing the mechanisms involved in heavy metal damage to plants.