|CHITWOOD, DANIEL - Danforth Plant Science Center|
|RUNDELL, SUSAN - Danforth Plant Science Center|
|LI, DARREN - Danforth Plant Science Center|
|WOODFORD, QUANEISHA - Danforth Plant Science Center|
|YU, TOMMY - Danforth Plant Science Center|
|LOPEZ, JOSE - University Of Northern Iowa|
|KANG, JULIE - Danforth Plant Science Center|
Submitted to: Plant Physiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/27/2016
Publication Date: 6/15/2016
Citation: Chitwood, D.H., Rundell, S.M., Li, D.Y., Woodford, Q.L., Yu, T.T., Lopez, J.R., Kang, J., Londo, J.P. 2016. Climate and developmental plasticity: interannual variability in grapevine leaf morphology. Plant Physiology. doi: 10.1101/030957.
Interpretive Summary: Leaf shape is one of the ways that researchers in plant biology and botany describe and categorize species. Besides the many aesthetic attributes of the shapes of leaves, leaf shape also plays an adaptive role, giving a plant the ability to change in response to climatic differences both within and between years. Paleorecords indicate that leaf shape differences correlate with differences in temperature and precipitation, indicating that changes in leaf shape are important for plants to be successful over time. However, there are no models of leaf shape and development that include evolutionary, developmental, and environmental components. In this study, we examined over 5,500 different leaves from 270 different grapevines from multiple wild grapevine species. Leaves were examined in two different growth seasons with differing temperature and precipitation levels. Results show that there are specific attributes of leaf shape that respond to these climatic forces. These results help us understand the capacity for long-lived woody perennials, such as grapevine, to adapt to and survive while climate patterns change.
Technical Abstract: The shape of leaves are dynamic, changing over evolutionary time between species, within a single plant producing different shaped leaves at successive nodes, during the development of a single leaf as it allometrically expands, and in response to the environment. Notably, strong correlations between the dissection and size of leaves with temperature and precipitation exist in both the paleorecord and extant populations. Yet, a morphometric model integrating evolutionary, developmental, and environmental effects on leaf shape is lacking. Here, we continue a morphometric analysis of >5,500 leaves representing 270 grapevines of multiple Vitis species between two growing seasons. Leaves are paired one-to-one, vine-to-vine accounting for developmental context, between growing seasons. Linear Discriminant Analysis reveals shape features that specifically define growing season, regardless of species or developmental context. The shape feature, a more pronounced distal sinus, is associated with the colder, drier growing season, consistent with patterns observed in the paleorecord. We discuss the implications of such plasticity in a long-lived woody perennial, such as grapevine, with respect to the evolution and functionality of plant morphology and changes in climate.