|SUTTON, B. - Florida Department Of Agriculture|
|STECK, G. - Florida Department Of Agriculture|
|RODRIGUEZ, E. - Florida Department Of Agriculture|
|SRIVASTAVA, P. - Florida Department Of Agriculture|
|NOLAZCO, ALVARADO - Instituto Nacional De Innovacion Agraria (INIA)|
|COLQUE, F. - Instituto Nacional De Investigacion Y Technologia Agraria Y Alimentaria|
|YABAR, LANDA - Agteca|
|LAGRAVA, SANCHEZ - Agteca|
|QUISBERTH, E. - Agteca|
|AREVALO, E. - Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario|
|RODRIGUEZ, CLAVIJO - Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario|
|ALVAREZ-BACA, J. - Universidad Peruana|
|GUEVARA, ZAPATA - Universidad Peruana|
|PONCE, P. - Central University Of Ecuador|
Submitted to: ZooKeys
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/25/2015
Publication Date: 11/26/2016
Citation: Sutton, B.D., Steck, G.J., Norrbom, A.L., Rodriguez, E.J., Srivastava, P., Nolazco, A., Colque, F., Yabar, L.E., Lagrava, S., Quisberth, E., Arevalo, E., Rodriguez, C., Alvarez-Baca, J.K., Guevara, Z.T., Ponce, P. 2016. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region. ZooKeys. 540:175-191.
Interpretive Summary: True fruit flies include numerous major agricultural pests from many parts of the world, most of which do not occur in the U.S. The introduction of these exotic pests is a constant threat to American fruit industries. The South American fruit fly, one of the most important fruit pests in the American tropics and subtropics, attacks a wide variety of commercial fruits, including citrus, apple, mango, peach, and many others. It is believed to be a complex of extremely similar, morphologically cryptic species, with different distributions, host preferences, and pest status. A variety of methods are being studied to try to resolve this complex, including analysis of DNA sequences. In this paper, the results are presented for an analysis of one DNA region that appears to be useful to discriminate at least 4 of the cryptic species. The ability to recognize them is essential to regulatory agencies such as APHIS-PPQ to prevent the spread of these pest species. The information provided will also be valuable to scientists studying the biology and management of these pest fruit fly species.
Technical Abstract: The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panama) and Brazil were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of A. fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included.