|ABBAS, MUHAMMAD - Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited|
|AHMAD, HAMADD - University Of Agriculture - Pakistan|
|SABIR, MUHAMMAD - Ege University|
|OZTURK, MUNIZ - Ege University|
Submitted to: Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/26/2016
Publication Date: 9/20/2017
Citation: Abbas, M., Ahmad, H.R., Corwin, D.L., Sabir, M., Ozturk, M. 2017. Influence of farmyard manure on retention and availability of nickel, zinc and lead in metal-contaminated calcareous loam soils. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management. 25(3)289-296.
Interpretive Summary: The reuse of untreated municipal wastewater in Pakistan on cropped soils can result in the accumulation of heavy metals (e.g., Ni, Zn, and Pb) in soil, which can translocate into plants and pose a threat to the health of humans and livestock consuming the plants. The application of farmyard manure (FYM) to the metal-contaminated soil, which is commonly applied in Pakistan as a source of organic matter and nutrients, can interact with the metals, resulting in greater retention by the soil or in greater mobility. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of FYM and incubation time on the availability and retention of Ni, Zn, and Pb in a loam soil. Results indicated that Ni availability increased and a similar trend was observed for Zn when FYM was added. Unlike Ni and Zn, availability of Pb decreased with the application of FYM. Results indicated the formation of a multi-dentate complex, which greatly enhances the metal solubility. However, organic matter immobilized Pb in the soil as indicated by the decreased extractability at the end of incubation period. Retention and availability of Ni, Zn, and Pb as affected by incubation time from a contaminated soil treated with farmyard manure. Those who will benefit from this study are producers, groundwater resource specialists and policy makers, ag consultants, and cooperative extension personnel.
Technical Abstract: Continuous irrigation of crops with untreated municipal effluent can result in the accumulation of nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) in soils and translocation to the plants. Application of farm yard manure (FYM) to metal-contaminated soils may increase or decrease the availability and retention time of metal depending upon its strength of complex formation with the metal, presence of silicate clays; Fe, Al, and Mn oxides; and CaCO3 contents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of FYM and incubation time on the availability and retention of Ni, Zn, and Pb in a loam soil. Soil was contaminated with solutions containing 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 Ni, Zn, and Pb as chloride salts. Farmyard manure was mixed in the contaminated soils at 40 g kg-1 for 90 days with moisture contents at field capacity. Soil samples were drawn at 30, 60, and 90 days and metals were extracted with ammonium bicarbonate diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (AB-DTPA) solution. Results indicated that Ni availability increased from 178.6 mg kg-1 (day 30) to 240 mg kg-1 (day 90) with FYM application of 400 mg kg-1. A similar trend was observed for Zn. Its availability increased from 162.5 mg kg-1 at day 30 to 230.27 mg kg-1 at day 90 with application of FYM at 400 mg kg-1. Unlike Ni and Zn, availability of Pb decreased from 214.1 mg kg-1 to 161 mg kg- with application of FYM at 400 mg kg-1. The high proportion of Ni and Zn in calcareous loam soil with the applied FYM indicated the formation of a multi-dentate complex which greatly enhances the metal solubility. However, organic matter immobilized Pb in the soil as indicated by the decreased extractability at the end of incubation period.