|Herrick, Jeffrey - Jeff|
|ARNALDS, O. - University Of Iceland|
|BRIGNEZU, S - University Of Kassel|
|HAN, GUODONG - Inner Mongolian Agriculture University|
|JOHNSON, M - Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, USDA)|
|LU, Y - Chinese Academy Of Sciences|
|MONTANARELLA, L - European Commission-Joint Research Centre (JRC)|
|PENGUE, W - Non ARS Employee|
|TOTH, G. - European Commission-Joint Research Centre (JRC)|
Submitted to: United Nations Environment Programs (UNEP)
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2016
Publication Date: 6/17/2016
Citation: Herrick, J.E., Arnalds, O., Bestelmeyer, B.T., Brignezu, S., Han, G., Johnson, M.V., Lu, Y., Montanarella, L., Pengue, W., Toth, G. 2016. Unlocking the sustainable potential of land resources evaluation systems, strategies and tools. United Nations Environment Programs (UNEP). 89 pp.
Interpretive Summary: Land evaluation can be used by national policymakers, international development organizations, farmers, and conservationists to increase productivity, biodiversity conservation success, and to promote innovation. Land evaluation helps make better decisions about how to use the land, and is therefore essential to achieving Land Degradation Neutrality (Sustainable Development Goal 15.3). An understanding of long- term land potential is needed to (1) increase productivity while adapting to climate change, (2) minimize the social, economic and environmental risks of land use change, (3) increase restoration success and identify land that could be restored, and (4) promote innovation and knowledge sharing. Many high quality evaluations were completed in the late 20th century and can serve as a foundation for new work. The report provides links to simple tools for completing and applying land evaluations at farm to national scales.
Technical Abstract: Better matching of land use with its sustainable potential is a “no-regrets” strategy for sustainably increasing agricultural production on existing land, targeting restoration efforts to where they are likely to be most successful, and guiding biodiversity conservation initiatives. Land potential is defined as the inherent, long-term potential of the land to sustainably generate ecosystem services. This report provides an introduction to land potential evaluation systems, strategies and tools necessary to implement this strategy. It provides information that both private landowners and policymakers can use to increase long-term productivity and profitability, while at the same time addressing global objectives defined through land-related Sustainable Development Goals, and particularly 15.3 (land degradation neutrality). The focus of the report is on the inherent long-term (decades) potential of the land to sustainably generate ecosystem services, based on soils, topography and climate. In general, land that can sustainably support higher levels of vegetation production, including crop, forage and tree, has higher potential. Short-term land potential (1-5 years) depends on a combination of long-term potential, weather, and the current condition of the land (e.g. fertility, compaction, current vegetation cover). Matching land use with its potential determines whether the inherent long-term potential is sustainably realized. Sustainability depends on (1) potential degradation resistance, and (2) potential resilience, which is the capacity to recover from degradation. Land with similar potential should therefore respond similarly to management. Policymakers have a tremendous number of opportunities to leverage land evaluations to both increase returns on investments, while minimizing risks of catastrophic failures, such as Britain’s post-world war II peanut scheme in Tanzania, and the United States Dust Bowl, which resulted from an ill-informed agricultural expansion in the early part of the 20th century. Policy options for applying land evaluation include, but are not limited to (1). setting realistic, practical targets for land degradation neutrality, (2). general land use planning to decide which lands should be reserved for agricultural production and biodiversity conservation, (3). agricultural land use planning to sustainably increase food security and the profitability of the farming sector, (4). land reform and redistribution to ensure that (a) objectives for equitability are met and (b) tract sizes meet requirements for minimum economic production units, and (c) providing new landowners with appropriate information on the best available management practices specific to their land, (5). designing incentive and other programs to minimize degradation risk, and (6). optimizing climate change adaptation and mitigation initiatives by effectively targeting resources to where the greatest returns on investments are likely to occur. The report provides an overview of existing land evaluation systems, options for making them more useful by integrating resilience, and for applying land evaluation to policy.