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Research Project: Enhanced System Models and Decision Support Tools to Optimize Water Limited Agriculture

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Title: PM2.5 and PM10 Emission from agricultural soils by wind erosion

Author
item Li, Hongli - Shandong Agricultural University
item Tatarko, John
item Kucharski, Matthew
item Dong, Zhi - Shandong Agricultural University

Submitted to: Aeolian Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/12/2015
Publication Date: 3/6/2015
Publication URL: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/aeolia
Citation: Li, H., Tatarko, J., Kucharski, M.J., Dong, Z. 2015. PM2.5 and PM10 Emission from agricultural soils by wind erosion. Aeolian Research. doi:10.1016/j.aeolia.2015.02.003.

Interpretive Summary: Soil tillage and wind erosion are major sources of particles less than 2.5 and 10 micrometers in size (also known as PM2.5 and PM10) in the atmosphere. Fifteen agricultural soils collected from 5 states were tested as crushed (<2.0 mm) and uncrushed (natural aggregation) at various wind speeds in a wind tunnel to obtain the PM2.5 and PM10 amounts emitted. In addition, ten of these soils were sampled as pairs from conventional tillage vs. no-till management fields. Results show that: (1) PM2.5 and PM10 emissions of crushed and uncrushed samples increase with wind speed with a more rapid and greater increase for crushed samples. (2) The ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 of uncrushed samples were higher. (3) PM2.5 and PM10 emission of soils were significantly correlated with dispersed PM2.5, PM10, clay, sand and <0.42 aggregates. (4) Although not significant, no-till soils had consistently lower PM2.5 and PM10 emissions than their paired conventional tilled soils for uncrushed samples.

Technical Abstract: Soil tillage and wind erosion are a major source of particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) emission from cultivated soil. Fifteen cultivated soils collected from 5 states were tested as crushed (<2.0 mm) and uncrushed (natural aggregation) at 8, 10, and 13 m s-1 wind velocity in a wind tunnel to obtain the PM2.5 and PM10 emissions. In addition, ten soils were paired as conventional vs. no-till. Results show that: (1) PM2.5 and PM10 emissions of crushed and uncrushed samples increase with wind speed with a more rapid and greater increase for crushed samples. After three wind speeds, mean PM2.5 and PM10 emissions from crushed soils ranged from 1.3 to 8.5 and 1.9 to 10 times that of uncrushed. (2) PM2.5/PM10 ratios of crushed and uncrushed samples are respectively 0.11 to 0.45 and 0.13 to 0.46, and the mean PM2.5/PM10 ratio of uncrushed samples is higher. (3) PM2.5 and PM10 emission of tested soils and dispersed PM2.5, PM10, and clay content show a significant negative power function relationship while sand content, <0.42mm aggregatee content show a significant linear positive correlation. (4) Although not significant, no-till soils had consistently lower PM2.5 and PM10 emissions than their paired conventional tilled soils for uncrushed samples.