|FERREIRA, DEBRA - Centro Nacional De Pesquisa E Conservação De Primatas Brasileiros|
|RIBEIRO, VANESSA - Universidade De Pernambuco|
|LARQUE, PAULO - Centro Nacional De Pesquisa E Conservação De Primatas Brasileiros|
|WAGNER, PAULO - Universidade De Pernambuco|
|PINHEIRO, JOSE - Universidade De Pernambuco|
|SILVA, JEAN - Centro Nacional De Pesquisa E Conservação De Primatas Brasileiros|
|REGO, ENEIDA - Universidade De Pernambuco|
|MOTA, RINALDO - Universidade De Pernambuco|
Submitted to: American Journal of Primatology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/22/2014
Publication Date: 2/12/2015
Publication URL: http://DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22377
Citation: Ferreira, D., Ribeiro, V., Larque, P., Wagner, P., Pinheiro, J., Silva, J., Dubey, J.P., Rego, E., Mota, R. 2015. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive Sapajus spp. American Journal of Primatology. 77:558–562.
Interpretive Summary: Toxoplasmosis continues to be a public health problem worldwide. It causes mental retardation and loss of vision in children, and abortion in livestock. Cats are the main reservoir of T. gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the resistant stage (oocyst) of the parasite in the feces. Humans become infected by eating under cooked meat from infected animals and food and water contaminated with oocysts. Non human primates (monkeys) are often used to study effect of anti parasitic drugs on infections, including toxoplasmosis. In the present study authors found that a high percentage of monkeys in captivity had T. gondii antibodies. Risk assessment indicated that feeding uncooked meat, and fresh fruit and vegetables were the main source of infection. The results will be of interest to biologists, parasitologists, and zoo veterinarians.
Technical Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive capuchin monkeys at a facility in the northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 116 bearded capuchin (Sapajus libidinosus), nine blonde capuchin (Sapajus flavius), five black-capped capuchin (Sapajus apella), and four capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off = 25); antibodies were found in 85.3% (99/116) of S. libidinosus, 55.6% (5/9) of S. flavius, 80.0% (4/5) of S. apella, and 75.0% (3/4) of S. spp. The risk factors identified with T. gondii seropositivity were ingestion of raw meat [OR = 4.13 (1.26; 13.50)] and old age [OR = 4.90 (1.70; 14.13)]. Results indicate a very high T. gondii seropositivity in these primate populations. To minimize exposure to T. gondii raw meat should not be fed to these animals.