|HOWE, DAN - University Of Kentucky|
|FURR, MARTIN - Virginia-Maryland Regional College Of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM)|
|SAVILLE, WILLIAM - The Ohio State University|
|MARSH, ANTOINETTE - The Ohio State University|
|REED, STEVEN - Rood And Riddle Equine Hospital|
|GRIGG, MICHAEL - National Instiute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases (NIAID, NIH)|
Submitted to: Veterinary Parasitology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/29/2015
Publication Date: 2/7/2015
Citation: Dubey, J.P., Howe, D., Furr, M., Saville, W., Marsh, A., Reed, S., Grigg, M. 2015. An update on Sarcocystis neurona infections in animals and Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM). Veterinary Parasitology. 209:1-42.
Interpretive Summary: Sarcocystis neurona is a single celled parasite previously misidentified as Toxoplasma gondii. It causes a fatal illness in horses and several other species of animals. The clinical syndrome was called “Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis” before ARS researchers in collaboration with scientists from several universities identified, isolated it, and named it Sarcocystis neurona in 1991. The host range for S. neurona keeps expanding and this parasite is now recognized as a major cause of death in sea otters. In the present papers authors review current information on the biology of S. neurona. This paper should be of uinterest to biologists, parasitologista, and veterinarians.
Technical Abstract: Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious disease of horses, and its management continues to be a challenge for veterinarians. The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is most commonly associated with EPM. Recently, S. neurona has emerged as a common cause of mortality in marine mammals, especially sea otters (Enhydra lutris). EPM-like illness has also been recorded in several other mammals, including domestic dogs and cats. This paper updates S. neurona and EPM information from the last 15 years on the advances regarding life cycle, molecular biology, epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and control.