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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Geneva, New York » Grape Genetics Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #309187

Research Project: Improving Fruit Quality, Disease Resistance, and Tolerance to Abiotic Stress in Grape

Location: Grape Genetics Research

Title: Hybrid and selfed seedling progenies of Vitis hybrid ‘Roger’s Red’ grape segregate for tendril distribution

Author
item Cousins, Peter - E & J Gallo Winery
item Zhong, Gan-yuan

Submitted to: Acta Horticulture Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/1/2014
Publication Date: 4/1/2015
Citation: Cousins, P., Zhong, G. 2015. Hybrid and selfed seedling progenies of Vitis hybrid ‘Roger’s Red’ grape segregate for tendril distribution. Acta Horticulturae Proceedings (ISHS) 1082:373-378.

Interpretive Summary: Grapevines of most species and varieties produce lateral meristems (tendrils and inflorescences) on at least two successive nodes in three. Lateral meristems complicate rootstock cutting production, tendrils are removed from rootstock cuttings prior to propagation and since tendrils clinging to wires, canes, or other tendrils make collecting cuttings more time consuming and expensive. Grape rootstock varieties with fewer lateral meristems show improved ease of harvest of cuttings in the nursery as well as a potentially improved harvest index. Reduced tendrils and other lateral meristems could increase efficiency in rootstock production. A grapevine seedling population from parents that differ in tendril frequency and distribution was developed and grown in our greenhouse. The presence of tendrils on the seedling grapevines correlated with the frequency of tendrils at lower nodes to higher nodes on the same plant, suggesting that selection for tendril frequency trait can begin at a young seedling age.

Technical Abstract: Grapevines of most species and varieties produce lateral meristems (tendrils and inflorescences) on at least two successive nodes in three. Lateral meristems complicate rootstock cutting production, since tendrils are removed from rootstock cuttings prior to propagation and since tendrils clinging to wires, canes, or other tendrils make collecting cuttings more time consuming and expensive. Grape rootstock varieties with fewer lateral meristems could show improved ease of harvest of cuttings in the nursery as well as a potentially improved harvest index. To develop improved grapevine rootstocks with reduced lateral meristems, an elite nematode resistant rootstock selection ((Vitis berlandieri x V. riparia) x V. biformis)) was crossed with Roger’s Red (Vitis hybrid) and Roger’s Red was self-pollinated. Seedlings from controlled pollinations were grown in a greenhouse and trained up a stake. Starting at the first node in alternate phyllotaxy (that is, a node with a lateral meristem) and continuing for twelve nodes, the presence or absence of lateral meristems was observed and the type of lateral meristem was reported. There were 141 cross pollinated seedlings. There were 83 seedlings from Roger’s Red self-pollination. The expected pattern of lateral meristem distribution was wild type: two successive lateral meristem bearing nodes, followed by a single lateral meristem-free node. However, 43 of 83 seedlings from Roger’s Red self-pollination showed two or more successive lateral meristem-free nodes (flanked by lateral meristem bearing nodes) and 12 of these 43 showed at least two sets of two successive lateral meristem-free nodes. One self-pollinated seedling showed three successive lateral meristem-free nodes in the alternate phyllotaxy. In contrast, in the hybrid population only 33 of 141 seedlings showed the non-wild type pattern of two successive lateral meristem-free nodes and of these 33, only 6 showed at least two sets of two successive lateral meristem-free nodes. Tendril distribution is under genetic control and the production of extra tendril-free nodes is segregating in these populations, however, the genetic control is not fully determined.