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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Geneva, New York » Grape Genetics Research Unit (GGRU) » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #308574

Research Project: Improving Fruit Quality, Disease Resistance, and Tolerance to Abiotic Stress in Grape

Location: Grape Genetics Research Unit (GGRU)

Title: Geographic trend of bud hardiness response in Vitis riparia

Author
item Londo, Jason
item MARTINSON, TIM - Cornell University - New York

Submitted to: Acta Horticulturae
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/12/2014
Publication Date: 4/15/2015
Publication URL: http://www/actahort.org/books/1082/1082_41.htm
Citation: Londo, J.P., Martinson, T. 2015. Geographic trend of bud hardiness response in Vitis riparia. Acta Horticulturae. (ISHS) 1082:299-304.

Interpretive Summary: A major goal of grapevine breeding efforts for production of grapes outside of Mediterranean climates is the development of varieties that have cold tolerance phenotypes. Typically, grapevine breeders use a trait termed “midwinter bud hardiness” as the descriptive phenotype for cold tolerance. Historically, breeders and farmers would evaluate the survival of dormant buds during the winter by cutting the bud and examining the tissues for damage. Modern day researchers can also evaluate bud hardiness using a practice called differential thermal analysis of low temperature exotherms or DTA. This method measures the temperature at which ice forms in the dormant bud, killing the tissue. In our recent studies we have examined the relationship between cold hardiness (measured with DTA) and the dormancy requirements of different wild grapevines. Our results preliminarily suggest a geographic pattern associated with dormant tissue temperature response and midwinter hardiness in the wild grapevine species Vitis riparia. For example, V. riparia that grow in the North tend to have short dormancy periods, deep midwinter hardiness, and rapid loss of dormancy once temperatures begin to rise in early spring. In contrast, V. riparia that grow in the South tend to have long dormancy periods, equally deep midwinter hardiness, and delayed loss of dormancy once temperatures rise. The data presented here represent two years of hardiness measures for different Vitis riparia and Vitis vinifera genotypes.

Technical Abstract: A major goal of grapevine breeding efforts for production outside of Mediterranean climates is the production of varieties that have cold tolerance phenotypes. Typically, grapevine breeders use midwinter bud hardiness measures as the descriptive phenotype for cold tolerance. Historical practices of bud cutting and more modern day differential thermal analysis of low temperature exotherms allows for an accurate, quantitative measure of bud hardiness. In our recent studies we have examined the relationship between cold hardiness and dormancy requirements and our results preliminarily suggest a geographic pattern associated with dormant tissue temperature response and midwinter hardiness in Vitis riparia. The data presented here represent two years of hardiness measures for different Vitis riparia and Vitis vinifera genotypes.