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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Parlier, California » San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center » Commodity Protection and Quality Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #307744

Title: Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) mortality in export bale compressors and response to a hydrogen phosphide and carbon dioxide gas mixture

item Yokoyama, Victoria
item Cambron, Sue
item MUHAREB, JEANNETTE - Dried Fruit Association Of California

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/27/2014
Publication Date: 2/1/2015
Citation: Yokoyama, V.Y., Cambron, S.E., Muhareb, J. 2015. Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) mortality in export bale compressors and response to a hydrogen phosphide and carbon dioxide gas mixture. Journal of Economic Entomology. 108(1):100-106. doi: 10.1093/jee/tou032.

Interpretive Summary: Hay for animal feed is a valuable U.S. agricultural export to Asia-Pacific nations and ongoing technical research ensures that no domestic pest is accidentally introduced into foreign countries through hay bales produced in the western states. Modern compressors are used to compact the size of field bales allowing more bales to be loaded into ocean freight containers. These compressors were shown to kill up to 99% of the most resistant stage of Hessian fly, a pest of great concern to importing countries. Additionally, a novel fumigant was evaluated as a potential quarantine treatment to control Hessian fly and was shown to be effective at the highest dose and exposure tested. This work supports the continuous movement of hay products into foreign markets and ensures trade partners that U.S. grown hay is of the highest quality and free of potential invasive pest risks.

Technical Abstract: Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), puparial mortality was evaluated in three modern hay compressors that produce compressed standard and large-size bales for export to Asia-Pacific countries. Pressure on bales ranged from 93.4-139.4 kg/cm² causing 90.0-99.9 % mortality of 10,891-23,164 puparia. Puparial response to a cylinderized hydrogen phosphide and carbon dioxide gas mixture was evaluated as a potential quarantine treatment using 2-4 d exposures to low, medium, and high doses of 0.73-0.86, 1.05-1.26, and 1.39-1.56 mg/liter, and temperatures of 5.87 ± 1.14, 9.84 ± 0.05, 16.14 ± 0.14, and 20.35 ± 0.11 °C. Accumulative Ct products (mg h/liter) for low, medium, and high fumigant doses were 34.9-37.7, 52.2-54.3, and 67.9-73.1 for 2 d; 52.7-60.6, 77.9-89.2, and 102.1-110.7 for 3 d; and 69.9-82.0, 99.4-118.2, and 132.3-146.8 for 4 d, respectively, at all temperatures. An increase in mortality was significantly related to an increase in fumigation duration at 5, 10, and 15 °C and, an increase in fumigant dose at 10 and 15 °C. Puparial mortality ranged from 97.2-100% at all doses and durations at 20 °C with no insect survivors at the highest dose for 3 d and the mid and highest dose for 4 d. Bale compression is currently used in the first phase of a multiple quarantine treatment to control potential Hessian fly contaminants in exported hay. The novel fumigant may have application as a single quarantine treatment for non-compressed, standard exported bales.