Submitted to: Korean Journal of Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/30/2014
Publication Date: 6/1/2013
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/58994
Citation: Lee, K.W., Lillehoj, H.S., Jang, S.J., Lee, S.H. 2013. Effects of various field coccidiosis control programs on host innate and adaptive immunity in commercial broiler chickens. Korean Journal of Poultry Science. 39(1). DOI: 10.5536/KJPS.2012.39.1.017. Interpretive Summary: Avian coccidiosis is major parasitic disease of high economic concern to poultry industry worldwide. The estimated economic loss for avian coccidiosis is estimated to be more than $3 billion worldwide. It has been a common practice to implement vaccination against coccidiosis or to use drugs to inhibit parasitic growth by poultry industry and it is important to gain better understanding of how these treatments affect host ability to make immune response to field pathogens. In this study ARS scientists collaborated with scientists at private companies to investigate if different type of coccidiosis control programs commonly used in field poultry production modulate various systemic immune parameters of poultry host. The results showed that the type of drug control program influenced various aspects of host immune cells and their function and these effects can affect poultry health and productivity. This finding will help field veterinarians to develop better disease control strategy.
Technical Abstract: Coccidiosis control programs such as vaccines or in-feed anticoccidials are commonly practiced in poultry industry to improve growth performance and health of commercial broiler chickens. In this study, we assessed the effects of various coccidiosis control programs (e.g., in ovo vaccination, synthetic chemicals, and antibiotic ionophores) on immune status of broiler chickens vaccinated against infectious bronchitis virus and Newcastle disease virus (ND) and raised on an Eimeria-contaminated used litter. In general, the levels of a-1-acid glycoprotein, an acute phase protein, were altered by the treatments when measured at 34 days of age. Splenocyte subpopulations and serum antibody titers against ND were altered by various coccidiosis control programs. In-ovo-vaccinated chickens exhibited highest mitogenic response when their spleen cells were stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) at 7 days of age. It is clear from this study that the type of coccidiosis control program influenced various aspects of innate and adaptive immune parameters of broiler chickens. Further studies will be necessary to delineate the underlying relationship between the type of coccidiosis control program and host immune system and to understand the role of other external environmental factors such as gut microbiota on host-pathogen interaction in various disease control programs.