|Avena Bustillos, Roberto|
|Glenn, Gregory - Greg|
|Orts, William - Bill|
Submitted to: American Chemical Society Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/6/2013
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Agricultural by-products, such as apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells, were torrefied at different temperatures and times. Torrefaction of biomass involves heating in an inert atmosphere to remove volatile components for improved grindability and increased energy density. Raw tomato pomace had the highest gross calorific value due to its high lignin and fat contents. At lower torrefaction temperatures, caloric values generally increased with torrefaction time. However, at higher torrefaction temperatures, caloric values remained relatively constant at different torrefaction times. For almond shells, an increase in torrefaction temperature resulted in lower solid energy yields, but higher caloric values of condensable gases.