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Title: Anthocyanin fingerprinting of true bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) fruit

item Lee, Jungmin
item DOSSETT, MICHAEL - Agriculture And Agri-Food Canada
item Finn, Chad

Submitted to: Journal of Functional Foods
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/4/2013
Publication Date: 11/28/2013
Publication URL:
Citation: Lee, J., Dossett, M., Finn, C.E. 2013. Anthocyanin fingerprinting of true bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) fruit. Journal of Functional Foods. 5:1985-1990.

Interpretive Summary: Korean black raspberries (bokbunja; Rubus coreanus Miq.) are loaded with red, purple to black pigments. While native to East Asia, commercial bokbunja planting has been increasing with the demand for bokbunja functional foods. Though most Korean black raspberry growers are unknowingly growing Rubus occidentalis L. (not bokbunja, but actually Western and Eastern North American black raspberries). We demonstrated that the pigment fingerprint is unique for each of two species, and can be used for taxonomy criteria and authenticity work. This project was partially funded by a Specialty Crop Research Initiative grant from USDA-National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA).

Technical Abstract: The interest in black raspberry products has been increasing due to its flavor and potential health benefits. While black raspberries grown in North America are Rubus occidentalis L., there has been some confusion regarding the identity of black raspberry grown in Korea (known as bokbunja; R. coreanus Miq.). As such, there is a need to define the anthocyanin profile of R. coreanus fruit collected from a verified source. We analyzed three genotypes of bokbunja fruit for anthocyanin profiles. While each varied in its anthocyanin proportions and total concentration, bokbunja fruit contained three anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, and pelargonidin-3-glucoside, and lacked the xylose containing glycosides characteristic of R. occidentalis: cyanidin-3-sambubioside, and cyanidin-3-xylosylrutinoside. Due to mix-ups of bokbunja identity, research claiming to be conducted on bokbunja fruit requires confirmation that the fruit was sourced from a correctly identified plant. The distinct profiles between the two species can be used to confirm plant identity.