Location: Grape Genetics Research Unit (GGRU)Title: Variation in winter survival mechanisms in cultivated and wild grapevine
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/17/2014
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: The predictability and stability of our climate is changing, increasing the potential for extreme abiotic stress impacts on crop plants. As abiotic stress is a dominant factor limiting grapevine crop success, understanding the physiological and molecular mechanisms employed by resistant genotypes in response to abiotic stress is essential to the future of sustainable viticulture. The focus of the USDA-ARS grape genetics and abiotic stress research program is to investigate phenotypic and genotypic variation in grapevine germplasm with the goal of crop improvement through genetic dissection of traits. Our studies are designed to investigate a range of cold hardiness associated traits in grapevine with the goal of identifying superior germplasm and elucidating molecular mechanisms of low temperature response and stress resistance. In order to identify resistant germplasm and the heritable components of cold tolerance, we make extensive use of the USDA-ARS cold hardy grapevine germplasm in Geneva, New York, USA which houses over 1300 grapevine accessions. Dormancy requirement, deacclimation rate, low temperature exotherm, and dormant bud osmolyte concentrations were examined for multiple genotypes representing eight different cultivated and wild grapevine species as well as cold hardy hybrid varieties. Results indicate large differences in these traits within and among species. Phenotypic variation observed in wild germplasm suggests that some of these traits may be controlled by separate genetic modules, while others may exist as adaptive complexes. Physiological, molecular, and genomic studies are underway to disentangle these traits and identify the mechanistic determinants of cold hardiness.