Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/7/2014
Publication Date: 4/2/2014
Citation: Landolt, P.J., Ohler, B., Lo, P., Cha, D.H., Suckling, D.M., Brunner, J. 2014. N-butyl sulfide as an attractant and co-attractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Environmental Entomology. 43(2):291-297. Interpretive Summary: Codling moth is the key pest of apple and a primary pest of pear in the western United States. New approaches to manage insect pests of apple and pear crops are needed that are safe, effective, and compatible with the environment. Researchers at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Wapato, Washington, collaborating with scientists with Plant and Food Research, New Zealand, and Washington State University, Wenatchee, demonstrated strong attraction of codling moths to the combination of acetic acid and N-butyl sulfide, and discovered a positive interaction of the same two chemicals with pear ester to constitute a novel chemical blend that is a superior attractant for the codling moth. This chemical attractant is effective as a lure in a trap to capture both male and female codling moths. This information provides new avenues of research to develop more powerful monitoring methods, and to develop baits to kill female codling moths in apple and pear orchards.
Technical Abstract: Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear eester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are among those chemicals reported to attract or enhance attractiveness to CM. We evaluated the trapping of CM with N-butyl sulfide alone, and in combination with acetic acid and pear ester, in apple orchards. Acetic acid was attractive in two tests, and N-butyl sulfide was attractive in one of two tests. N-butyl sulfide increased catches of CM when used with acetic acid to bait traps. N-butyl sulfide also increased catches of CM when added to traps baited with the combination of acetic acid and pear ester. Male and female CM both responded to these chemicals and chemical combinations. These results provide a new 3-component lure comprised of N-butyl sulfide, acetic acid and pear ester that is stronger for luring CM females than other attractants tested.