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ARS Home » Plains Area » College Station, Texas » Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center » Insect Control and Cotton Disease Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #294792

Research Project: COTTON DISEASE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE COTTON PRODUCTION

Location: Insect Control and Cotton Disease Research

Title: Ultra-low gossypol cottonseed: gene silencing opens up a vast, but underutilized protein resource for humanity

Author
item Rathore, Keerti - Texas A&M University
item Wedegaertner, Thomas - Cotton, Inc
item Hake, Kater - Cotton, Inc
item Campbell, Leanne - Texas A&M University
item Palle, Sreenath - Texas A&M University
item Sunilkumar, G - Texas A&M University
item Pandeya, Devendra - Texas A&M University
item Puckhaber, Lorraine
item Stipanovic, Robert - Bob

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/6/2013
Publication Date: 11/5/2013
Citation: Rathore, K.S., Wedegaertner, T.C., Hake, K., Campbell, L.M., Palle, S.R., Sunilkumar, G., Pandeya, D., Puckhaber, L.S., Stipanovic, R.D. 2013. Ultra-low gossypol cottonseed: gene silencing opens up a vast, but underutilized protein resource for humanity. 1st International Conference on Global Food Security, 29 September-2 October 2013, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands. CDROM.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Cotton, grown mainly for its fiber, is a major crop in several developing and developed countries all across the globe. In 2011, 48.8 million metric tons (MMT) of cottonseed was produced worldwide as a by-product of the 26.1 MMT of cotton lint production (FAO Statistics). This amount of cottonseed, containing nearly 11 MMT of protein, can potentially provide the protein requirements of ~600 million people per year at a rate of 50 g protein/day. However, gossypol, a toxic terpenoid present in the seed glands, renders cottonseed unfit as food for human consumption or even feed for non-ruminant animals. A major portion of this abundant agricultural resource is utilized simply as feed for ruminant animals either as whole seeds or as meal following oil extraction. However, the feed conversion ratio for cows is very high (5.8), and these animals are very inefficient in converting vegetable protein into animal protein. Therefore, elimination of gossypol from cottonseed has been a long-standing goal of geneticists. The “glandless mutant cotton” cultivated by native Americans in the Hopi region of Arizona and discovered by the breeders in the 1950s was free of glands and, therefore, gossypol. Given this seemingly important trait, a number of studies were launched in many parts of the world to ascertain the nutritional value and commercial viability of this gossypol-free seed. Feeding studies were conducted on swine, poultry and aquaculture species utilizing cottonseed meal derived from glandless cottonseed. In addition, investigations to assess its utility for human nutrition were also launched in several countries. The results from these studies were very promising in that these showed cottonseed to be a useful source of protein. Despite this promise, glandless cotton was deemed commercially unviable, largely because of the increased susceptibility of the plant to insect pests due to the systemic absence of glands that contain gossypol and related, protective terpenoids. Thus, the potential of cottonseed in contributing to the food requirements of the burgeoning world population remained unrealized. Compared to traditional plant breeding, biotechnology offers a more precise mechanism to alter certain traits. Therefore, we utilized biotechnological tools to “turn off” gossypol production specifically in the seed, as opposed to the whole plant, thereby maintaining the plant’s natural defense mechanisms.