|HOAG, D - Colorado State University|
|GIANNICO, G - Oregon State University|
|LI, J - Oregon State University|
|GARCIA, T - Oregon State University|
|GERTH, W - Oregon State University|
|MELLBYE, M - Oregon State University|
|Mueller Warrant, George|
|OSMOND, D - North Carolina State University|
|JENNINGS, D - North Carolina State University|
|ARABI, M - Colorado State University|
|MEALS, D - Icenine Environmental Consulting|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/30/2012
Publication Date: 12/31/2012
Citation: Hoag, D., Giannico, G.R., Li, J., Garcia, T., Gerth, W., Mellbye, M., Mueller Warrant, G.W., Griffith, S.M., Osmond, D., Jennings, D., Arabi, M., Meals, D. 2012. Calapooia watershed, Oregon: National Institute of Food and Agriculture - Conservation Effects Assessment Project. Chapter 19. In: Osmond, D.L., D.W. Meals, D. LK. Hoag, and M. Arabi, editors. How to build better agricultural conservation programs to protect water quality: the National Institute of Food and Agriculture–Conservation Effects Assessment Project experience. Ankeny, IA: Soil and Water Conservation Society. p. 327-341.
Interpretive Summary: Agriculture-related land uses have affected not only the quality but also the quantity of water in many ecosystems. Agricultural fields are often drained to increase productivity, while eroded soils and agro-chemicals are likely to find their way into neighboring water bodies. Some 'traditional' farm practices may negatively affect both a farmer's economy and the proper functioning of an ecosystem. Hence, there is increasing need for the development of farm conservation plans that can effectively optimize both business profitability and environmental quality. This is a dual-purpose project that aims at: 1) quantifying linkages between conservation practices and biophysical responses (including water quality and biological indicators); and, 2) developing a model to assess tradeoffs between agricultural practices that maximize economic benefits and conservation actions that sustain or improve ecosystem services.
Technical Abstract: The overall goals of Assessing Trade-offs Between Crop Production and Ecological Services were to quantify linkages between conservation practices and biophysical responses including water quality and biological indicators, and to develop a model to assess tradeoffs between agricultural practices that maximize economic benefits and conservation actions that sustain or improve ecosystem services. Conservation practices were related to measured water quality and biological indicators (fish, macroinvertebrates, amphibians, and birds) to determine relationships. Land treatment focused on conservation tillage and riparian buffers because most of the agriculture in the Calapooia basin involves cool-season grass-seed production, which is mostly comprised of perennials. Land treatment was tracked by using existing information from NRCS, OSU Extension and USDA along with farmer interviews, and aerial photographs followed by site visits. Fish community composition and abundance were mainly influenced by broad-scale variables such as distance to perennial water, upstream channel gradient, and percent land cover type. Sites with less watershed agriculture had more representatives in the sensitive aquatic insect while sites with highly agricultural watershed had macroinvertebrate communities dominated by non-insects. Wetland macroinvertebrate results showed that wetland type affected diversity of invertebrate species and families. By using the landuse/landcover database, it was demonstrated that perennial cover greatly increased salamander habitat and canopy density and cover increased frog habitat. Bird numbers relative to habitat depended on the types of birds studied. In general, agriculture had mixed consequences for the biological indicators.