Location: Livestock Issues ResearchTitle: Evaluation of endocrine and immune disruption of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus vaccinated steers challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus Author
|Carroll, Jeffery - Jeff Carroll|
Submitted to: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/7/2013
Publication Date: 12/1/2013
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/61372
Citation: Falkenberg, S.M., Carroll, J.A., Elsasser, T.H., Best, T., Sartin, J.L., Buntyn, J.O., Schmidt, T.B. 2013. Evaluation of endocrine and immune disruption of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus vaccinated steers challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 74(12):1552-1529. Interpretive Summary: A collaborative study was conducted by scientists from the Livestock Issues Research Unit, Mississippi State University, the USDA-ARS Bovine Functional Genomics Unit, and Auburn Univeristy to determine the influence of a infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus challenge on the endocrine and immune responses in steers. The study was designed with crossbred beef steers to mimic the immunological challenges that beef cattle experience when being shipped to feedlots and exposed to various stressors and novel pathogens. Results from this study indicated that the level of viral challenge elicited a febrile response between day 2 and day 6 of the study that peaked on day 4. Additionally, circulating concentrations of the stress related hormone, cortisol, and interferon-gamma, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, peaked on day 4 as well. Overall, the data revealed that alterations in the somatotrophic axis were not associated with large increases in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results also suggest that the dose of the virus used in the present study, while sufficient to elicit a febrile response, was not enough to elicit a robust pro-inflammatory immune response. This data will be of interest to scientists in the fields of stress physiology and immunology, beef cattle production, and to cattle producers in general. Ultimately, it is anticipated that this type of data will lead to the development of alternative management practices that will improve the health and performance of beef cattle.
Technical Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the endocrine and immune responses of steers challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). For the study, twelve crossbred beef steers weighing approximately 228.82 kg were fitted with indwelling rectal temperature monitoring devices and randomly assigned to a Control (CON) or IBRV treatments. Immune challenged steers received an intra-nasal dose of IBRV (4 ml total volume; 2ml/nostril) and CON steers received an intra-nasal dose of saline (2 ml/nostril). On day 0, steers were challenged and placed into isolated paddocks. At 72 hours post-inoculation, steers were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters and placed into individual stanchions. Blood samples were intensively collected on days 4 through 8 post-inoculation. Serum was analyzed for cortisol, interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1. On day 2, IBRV challenged steers had increased rectal temperature compared to CON steers (P < 0.05); the greatest rectal temperatures were observed on day 4, after which rectal temperatures returned to baseline by day 6. Serum concentrations of cortisol, interferon-gamma, and growth hormone exhibited a similar response pattern increasing by day 2 for the IBRV challenged steers, with the greatest increases observed on day 4, and subsiding on day 6. There was a decrease (P = 0.04) in growth hormone production in IBRV challenged steers, but no difference in insulin-like growth factor-1. Collectively, the data revealed that alterations in the somatotrophic axis were not associated with large increases in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results suggest that the dose of the virus used in the present study, while sufficient to elicit a febrile response, was not enough to elicit a robust pro-inflammatory immune response.