Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/5/2012
Publication Date: 2/12/2013
Citation: Neven, L.G. 2013. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival. Journal of Economic Entomology. 106(1):520-523.
Interpretive Summary: Codling moth is an important pest of apples in the United States and is the subject of quarantine restrictions in apples exported to countries where this pest is not present. It is not knowing whether codling moth in apples exported from the U.S. to countries within the 30th latitudes can establish populations and spread. Scientists at the USDA-ARS Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory conducted a two year study to determine the potential of codling moth to maintain a population under short days and warm temperatures. Based on this study it was concluded that the ability of codling moth to establish and maintain a population in countries with short days and few days below 10°C is extremely remote. This information may be relevant to future trade negotiations with any country importing U.S.-produced apples, where the climate would not support codling moth populations.
Technical Abstract: The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold storage conditions and held under short day lengths could not break diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to establish a minimum viable population. This study expands the in-fruit work by examining the ability of codling moth to establish a laboratory population under a short photoperiod, 12:12 L:D, as compared to a long photoperiod, 16:8 L:D. Codling moth larvae were collected from field infested fruits in 2010 and 2011. Moths were collected from the infested fruits and separated into two groups representing the two day length conditions. A total of 1004 larvae were monitored for adult emergence and ability to generate a subsequent population. Larvae held under the 12:12 L:D photoperiod generated only 1 moth in the 2 year period, whereas larvae held under the 16:8 L:D photoperiod generated 186 females and 179 males, that sustained subsequent generations on artificial diet under laboratory conditions. These results indicate that under controlled environmental conditions, codling moth cannot complete diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to sustain a viable population when held under a short photoperiod.