Submitted to: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/28/2013
Publication Date: 5/31/2013
Citation: El-Sayed, A.M., Cole, L., Revell, J., Manning, L., Knight, A.L., Bus, V., Suckling, D.M. 2013. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 39:643-652. Interpretive Summary: Codling moth is the major insect pest attacking apple in the United States and is an important quarantine pest. ARS researchers at the USDA, ARS, Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, Wapato, WA in collaboration with researchers in New Zealand have tested the attractiveness of several apple volatiles in combination with pear ester to monitor female moths. A six-component blend of apple volatiles with pear ester proved to be an effective lure. Results suggest that this new lure can be used to develop moth catch thresholds to reduce grower’s over spraying of insecticides.
Technical Abstract: This work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples and investigate whether these can be used to enhance the efficacy of pear ester, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, for monitoring female and male codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the field using dynamic headspace sampling during the active period of codling moth flight. Using GC-EAD analysis, six compounds elicited response from female antennae. These compounds were identified by GC-MS and authentic standards as nonanal, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3, (E)7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, Z,E-a-farnesene, and E,E-a-farnesene. When the EAD active compounds were tested individually in the field, the catch of codling moth was not different from the control. Addition of each of the EAD active compounds to pear ester in a binary mixture resulted in a significant increase in the number of female codling moths captured compared with pear ester alone. Addition of the 6-component blend to the pear ester resulted in a significant increase in the number of males captured compared with any other treatment tested in this experiment, while the number of females caught was similar to the pear ester plus acetic acid combination lure. The new apple-pear ester host kairomone blend is more potent than pear ester for monitoring female codling moth, and is more environmentally friendly and easier to handle than the pear ester-acetic acid combination lure.