Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/30/2012
Publication Date: 10/25/2012
Citation: Son, Y., Chon, I., Neven, L.G., Kim, Y. 2012. Controlled atmosphere and temperature treatment system to disinfest fruit moth, Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera:Carposinidae) on apples. Journal of Economic Entomology. 105(5):1540-1547; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC12133. Interpretive Summary: Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), commonly called the peach fruit moth in Asia, is a serious insect pest of apples and peaches in Korea and Japan. In order to replace the ozone-depleting chemical methyl bromide as a fruit disinfestitation treatment, CATTS (controlled atmosphere and temperature treatment system) was tested to disinfest apples infested by peach fruit moth. Scientists at Andong University in South Korea in collaboration with researchers at USDA-ARS, Wapato, Washington, evaluated CATTS to determine applicability as an alternative quarantine treatment. It was determined that the CATTS treatment of peach fruit was effective against the most tolerant stage, the 5th instar, and that this species is as susceptible to the treatment as codling moth and oriental fruit moth. In addition, it was determined that a heat inducible heat shock protein, hsp90, expression was suppressed during CATTS treatments, indicating a possible mechanism of action of the combination heat under low oxygen and elevated carbon dioxide environments. Evaluation of fruit quality following CATTS treatments indicated acceptable quality compared to untreated controls. Those results will promote trade of both conventional and organically-produced apples without the need for ozone depleting fumigants.
Technical Abstract: Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) is a serious pest of apples and peaches in Korea and Japan. Due to its limited distribution, C. sasakii has been identified as a quarantine pest in several countries. The Controlled Atmosphere/Temperature Treatment System (CATTS) was tested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to control C. sasakii in apples. The last instar was the most tolerant immature stage to a heat treatment of 44°C for 20 min. When the apples infested with different stages of C. sasakii were treated under CATTS conditions (heating rate of 16°C/h, chamber temperature of 46°C, final core temperature of 44°C under 1% O2/15% CO2 atmosphere), young larvae (first – fourth instars) did not survive 40 min exposure, but the fifth instars required an exposure of at least 60 min to attain 100% mortality. A partial heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) was cloned and showed inducible expression in response to heat shock at 44°C. CATTS suppressed transcription of the hsp90 gene. Apples did not show any appreciable loss of quality in relation to fruit firmness, sweetness, and decay after a 60 min CATTS treatment. These results suggest that CATTS can be applicable to control C. sasakii in apples.