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Title: New mite invasions in citrus: A look towards the early years of the twenty-first century

item FERRAGUT, F. - Valencia University
item NAVIA, D. - University Of Brasilia
item Ochoa, Ronald - Ron

Submitted to: Experimental and Applied Acarology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/12/2012
Publication Date: 1/15/2013
Citation: Ferragut, F., Navia, D., Ochoa, R. 2013. New mite invasions in citrus: A look towards the early years of the twenty-first century. Experimental and Applied Acarology. 59(1-2):145-164.

Interpretive Summary: The citrus crop is one of the largest commodity in the United States with an estimated forecast of 11.6 million tons for 2011 (USDA-NASS). Even though a large number of references on insect and mite pests on citrus have been published, relatively little is known about mite problems occurring in the Americas and other citrus production areas in Europe. This paper addresses the recent, new invasive spider mite species in citrus that could be potential threats to the United States. The information will be useful to citrus scientists, citrus growers, quarantine action agency personnel, and pest control managers.

Technical Abstract: Several mite species commonly attack cultivated citrus around the world. About 104 phytophagous species have been reported causing different levels of damage in citrus leaves, buds and fruits, but only a dozen can be considered major pests that require control measures. During the last few years several species have expanded their geographical range primarily due to the great increase in trade and travel worldwide, and represent a threat to agriculture in many countries. Three spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) have recently invaded the citrus growing areas in the Mediterranean region and Latin America. The Oriental red mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), presumably from the Near East, was detected in southern Spain in 2001. The Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), is widely distributed in North, Central and South America. It was first reported in Europe in 1999 on citrus in Portugal; afterwards the mite invaded the citrus orchards in Southern Spain. In Latin America, the Hindustan citrus mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), previously known only from citrus and other host plants in India, was reported causing significant damage to citrus leaves and fruits in Zulia, Northwest Venezuela in the late 1990s. Later, the mite spread southeast to northern Brazil where it was detected on lemon trees in the State of Roraima in 2008. Whereas levels of damage, population dynamics and control measures are relatively well know in the case of Oriental red mite and Texas citrus mite, our knowledge about S. hindustanicus is noticeably scant. We provide information on pest status, seasonal trends and natural enemies in invaded areas for these species, together with morphological data useful for identification. As invasive species may evolve during the invasive process, comparison of behavior, damage and management options between native and invaded areas for these species will be useful for understanding the invader´s success and their ability to colonize new regions.