|Zhu, Junwei - Jerry|
|PRITCHARD, SARA - University Of Nebraska|
|TANGTRAKULWANICH, KHANOBPORN - University Of Nebraska|
|BAXENDALE, FREDERICK - University Of Nebraska|
|BREWER, GARY - University Of Nebraska|
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/17/2011
Publication Date: 8/17/2011
Citation: Zhu, J.J., Li, A.Y., Pritchard, S., Tangtrakulwanich, K., Baxendale, F.P., Brewer, G. 2011. Contact and fumigant toxicity of a botanical-based feeding deterrent of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59:10394-10400. DOI: DX.DOI.ORG/10.1021/JF2016122.
Interpretive Summary: The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), has been considered as one of the most serious biting flies not only in confined, but also in pastured livestock. The economic loss caused by the stable fly to the cattle industry in the U.S. exceeds two billion dollars annually. Current practices for managing stable using insecticides only provide marginal control. Insecticide resistance has also been recently reported in stable flies. The present study reports using plant-based insecticides, e.g. essential oils, as an alternative for managing this fly pest.
Technical Abstract: The toxicity of several plant essential oils and some ingredient compounds was evaluated by contact and fumigant toxicity bioassays. Among the three test plant essential oils, catnip at a 20-mg dosage showed the strongest toxicity against stable flies, with the shortest knock-down time (~7 min) and the least lethal time (~19 min) observed. Similar levels of toxicity from catnip oil and another three insect repellent compounds (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide, (1S,2'S)-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide) to stable flies were found. No differences in knock-down and lethal time were found among the catnip oil and the two active ingredient compounds. Similar results in mortality were observed from a 20-mg dose of catnip oil to stable flies tested using the modified K&D module and the fumigant jar. When catnip oil was topically applied to stable fly, the least lethal dose required was 12.5 micrograms/fly and the dose of 50 micrograms/fly led to 100% mortality. The blood feeding of stable flies was also negatively affected by the topical application of catnip oil, and the effect was dose-dependent. This study demonstrated that catnip oil has both contact and fumigant toxicity against the stable fly, thus has the potential to be developed for alternative stable fly control.