|PALUMBO, J - University Of California
|HOROWITZ, A - Agricultural Research Organization Of Israel
|PRABHAKER, NILIMA - University Of California
|DENHOLM, I - Rothamsted Research
Submitted to: Bemisia: Bionomics and Management of a Global Pest
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/1/2009
Publication Date: 5/10/2010
Citation: Castle, S.J., Palumbo, J.C., Horowitz, A.H., Prabhaker, N., Denholm, I. 2010. Ecological determinants of resistance to insecticides in Bemisia tabaci. pp. 423-465. In Bemisia: Bionomics and Management of a Global Pest, P. A. Stansly, S. E. Naranjo (eds.). Springer Dordrecht-Heidelberg-London-New York.
Interpretive Summary: The global whitefly pest Bemisia tabaci occurs in field, vegetable and ornamental crops grown under open or protected conditions in temperate and tropical environments and is prone to outbreak conditions in diverse habitats worldwide. The history of B. tabaci as an agricultural pest is replete with documented episodes of over-reaching insecticide use that resulted in resistance development and impairment of field control. Aggressive insecticide applications have often been held responsible for tipping the balance between manageable infestation and uncontrolled outbreak. The present review will examine ecological characteristics of B. tabaci that influence patterns of resistance in various agricultural settings. These characteristics will be further examined in the context of past episodes of resistance so that ecological and operational factors that exacerbated or mitigated resistance can be explored, all the while keeping an eye towards the future of B. tabaci management. The new era of IPM for B. tabaci ushered in by successful programs in Israel and Arizona has continued to be boosted by development and commercialization of effective insecticides, some of them highly selective against B tabaci. The challenge for IPM in general and insecticide resistance management (IRM) programs in particular will be to incorporate the newer chemistries into viable control programs that emphasize conservation of natural enemies and active ingredients
Technical Abstract: Insecticide resistance is a critical issue in pest management and has often been implicated as the primary cause of outbreaks of the global whitefly pest Bemisia tabaci Gennadius. Resistance to all modes of action used commonly against B. tabaci has been documented in various locations throughout the world. The present review examines ecological traits of B. tabaci that contribute to resistance while also considering agro-ecological influences of various environments inhabited by B. tabaci. One of the most identifiable traits of B. tabaci is its highly polyphagous nature that, along with its adaptiveness and capacity to tolerate high temperatures, increases ecological potential and enables colonization over a wide geographical region. As a result of its wide distribution, the probability of exposure to insecticides and risk of resistance increases, perhaps accounting in part for the wide occurrence of resistant B. tabaci populations worldwide. However, resistance expression varies considerably from one region to another even when similar insecticide regimens are being used. Differences in the overall intensity in which particular modes of action are used due to cropping patterns may account for higher selection pressure that occurs in more resistance-prone regions. Opportunities to manage resistance have improved dramatically in recent years as newer and more effective insecticides have been added to the pest management arsenal. Effective and sustainable use of newer modes of action will require greater knowledge on the part of growers and pest managers to make correct selections and properly timed applications, and to maintain awareness of resistance management principles to minimize insecticide use when possible and diversify when necessary.