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Title: RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design

item TERENIUS, OLLE - Swedish University Of Agricultural Sciences
item PAPANICALOU, ALEXIE - University Of Exeter
item GARBUTT, JENNIE - University Of Bath
item ELEFTHERIANOS, IOANNIS - George Washington University
item HUVENNE, HANNEKE - Ghent University
item ALBRECHTSEN, MERETE - University Of Copenhagen
item AN, CHUNJU - Kansas State University
item AYMERIC, JEAN-LUC - University Of Montpellier
item BARTHEL, ANDREA - Max Planck Society
item BEBAS, PIOTR - University Of Warsaw
item BITRA, KAVITA - University Of Georgia
item BRAVO, ALEJANDRA - Universidad Nacional Autonoma De Mexico
item CHEVALIER, FRANÇOIS - University Of Montpellier
item COLLINGE, DEREK - Australian National University
item CRAVA, CRISTINA - Valencia University
item DE MAAGD, RUUD - Wageningen University And Research Center
item DUVIC, BERNARD - University Of Montpellier
item ERLANDSON, MARTIN - Agriculture And Agri-Food Canada
item FAYE, INGRID - Stockholm University
item FELFÖLDI, GABRIELLA - Eotvos Lorand University
item FUJIWARA, HARUHIKO - University Of Tokyo
item FUTAHASHI, RYO - University Of Tokyo
item GANDHE, ARCHANA - Dna Fingerprinting
item GATEHOUSE, HEATHER - Plant And Food Research
item GATEHOUSE, LAURENCE - Plant And Food Research
item GIEBULTOWICZ, JADWIGA - Oregon State University
item GÓMEZ, ISABEL - Universidad Nacional Autonoma De Mexico
item GRIMMELIKHUIJZEN, CORNELIS - University Of Copenhagen
item GROOT, ASTRID - Max Planck Society
item HAUSER, FRANK - University Of Copenhagen
item HECKEL, DAVID - Max Planck Society
item HEGEDUS, DWAYNE - Agriculture And Agri-Food Canada
item HRYCAJ, STEVEN - Wayne State University
item HUANG, LIHUA - Cornell University
item Hull, Joe
item IATROU, KOSTAS - National Center For Scientific Research Demokritos
item IGA, MASATOSHI - Ghent University
item KANOST, MICHAEL - Kansas State University
item KOTWICA, JOANNA - University Of Warsaw
item LI, CHANGYOU - Cornell University
item LI, JIANGHONG - Cornell University
item LUNDMARK, MAGNUS - University Of Copenhagen
item MATSUMOTO, SHOGO - Advance Science Institute, Riken
item MEYERING-VOS, MARTINA - University Of Bayreuth
item MILLICHAP, PETER - University Of Bath
item MONTEIRO, ANTÓNIA - Yale University
item MRINAL, NIROTPAL - Dna Fingerprinting
item NAGARAJU, JAVAREGOWDA - Dna Fingerprinting
item NIIMI, TERUYUKI - Nagoya University
item NOWARA, DANIELA - University Of Copenhagen
item OHNISHI, ATSUSHI - Advance Science Institute, Riken
item OOSTRA, VICENCIO - Leiden University
item OZAKI, KATSUHISA - Jt Biohistory Research Hall
item PAPAKONSTANDINOU, MARIA - National Center For Scientific Research Demokritos
item POPADIC, ALEKSANDAR - Wayne State University
item RAJAM, MANCHIKATLA - University Of Delhi
item SAENKO, SUZANNE - Leiden University
item SIMPSON, ROBERT - Plant And Food Research
item SOBERÓN, MARIO - Universidad Nacional Autonoma De Mexico
item STRAND, MICHAEL - University Of Georgia
item TOMITA, SHUICHIRO - National Institute Of Agrobiological Sciences (NIAS)
item TOPRAK, UMUT - University Of Saskatchewan
item WANG, PING - Cornell University
item WEI WEE, CHOON - National University Of Singapore
item WHYARD, STEVEN - University Of Manitoba
item ZHANG, WENQING - Sun Yat-Sen University
item FFRENCH-CONSTANT, RICHARD - University Of Exeter
item HERRERO, SALVADOR - Valencia University
item GORDON, KARL - Commonwealth Scientific And Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)
item SWEVERS, LUC - National Center For Scientific Research Demokritos
item SMAGGHE, GUY - Ghent University

Submitted to: Journal of Insect Physiology
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/4/2010
Publication Date: 11/20/2010
Citation: Terenius, O., Papanicalou, A., Garbutt, J.S., Eleftherianos, I., Huvenne, H., Albrechtsen, M., An, C., Aymeric, J., Barthel, A., Bebas, P., Bitra, K., Bravo, A., Chevalier, F., Collinge, D.P., Crava, C.M., De Maagd, R.A., Duvic, B., Erlandson, M., Faye, I., Felföldi, G., Fujiwara, H., Futahashi, R., Gandhe, A.S., Gatehouse, H.S., Gatehouse, L.N., Giebultowicz, J., Gómez, I., Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J., Groot, A.T., Hauser, F., Heckel, D.G., Hegedus, D.D., Hrycaj, S., Huang, L., Hull, J.J., Iatrou, K., Iga, M., Kanost, M.R., Kotwica, J., Li, C., Li, J., Lundmark, M., Matsumoto, S., Meyering-Vos, M., Millichap, P.J., Monteiro, A., Mrinal, N., Nagaraju, J., Niimi, T., Nowara, D., Ohnishi, A., Oostra, V., Ozaki, K., Papakonstandinou, M., Popadic, A., Rajam, M.V., Saenko, S., Simpson, R.M., Soberón, M., Strand, M.R., Tomita, S., Toprak, U., Wang, P., Wei Wee, C., Whyard, S., Zhang, W., Ffrench-Constant, R.H., Herrero, S., Gordon, K., Swevers, L., Smagghe, G. 2010. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design. Journal of Insect Physiology. 57, 2011 pp 231-245.

Interpretive Summary: Targeted knockdown of specific genes via the RNA-degrading mechanism inherent to RNA interference (RNAi) offers a means of assessing gene function within living cells and has enormous potential as an alternative to traditional pest management practices. RNAi-based knockdown studies in moths and butterflies, however, have proven to be unexpectedly challenging with wide-ranging results that vary from species to species. To better clarify RNAi experimentation in moths and butterflies, a meta-study was conducted analyzing more than 150 published and unpublished reports of RNAi-based studies. Possible reasons for the observed variability in RNAi experiments and potential future experiments are discussed. It is clear though that our understanding of the RNAi mechanism in moths and butterflies, and insects in general, is incomplete and that continued experimentation is needed.

Technical Abstract: Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive experiments have not been collected in such a way that they are possible to analyze. In this review, we have collected detailed data from more than 150 published and unpublished experiments. Despite a large variation in the data, trends that are found are that RNAi is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success in RNAi experiments in Lepidoptera are discussed. The review also points to a need to further investigate the mechanism of RNAi in lepidopteran insects and its likely connection to the innate immune response. Our general understanding of RNAi in Lepidoptera will be further aided in the future as our public database at will continue to gather information on RNAi experiments.