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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: The Occurrence of Codling Moth in Low Latitude Countries: Validation of Pest Distribution Reports

item Willett, Michael
item Neven, Lisa
item Miller, Charles

Submitted to: HortTechnology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/11/2009
Publication Date: 7/1/2009
Publication URL:
Citation: Willett, M.J., Neven, L.G., Miller, C.E. 2009. The Occurrence of Codling Moth in Low Latitude Countries: Validation of Pest Distribution Reports. HortTechnology. 19(3):633-637.

Interpretive Summary: Codling moth is a pest of U.S. produced apples and the focus of numerous export restrictions associated with plant protection in both temperate and tropical countries where this pest does not occur. However, there is a question on whether codling moth can establish in tropical countries between the 30th parallels based on biological life history attributes. The paper reviews the available data related to the distribution of codling moth in the world and summarizes the potential of establishment of this pest to countries within the 30th parallels.

Technical Abstract: Phytosanitary restrictions are increasingly a factor in the ability of U.S. tree fruit exporters to gain and maintain access to world wide markets. With the expansion of temperate fruit production into the tropics, certain countries in the region have begun to impose a range of quarantine restrictions aimed at preventing the introduction of temperate pests into their production regions. Under international trade rules, these restrictions must be based on scientific principles including an assessment of whether the proposed quarantine pest is ecologically adapted to establish and spread under the climatic conditions of the importing country. As an example, since 2002, the government of Taiwan has imposed country-specific import restrictions upon detection of codling moth in apples. Exporters in the U.S. began questioning the likelihood of codling moth becoming established in Taiwan, given reports in the literature regarding climatological and day length limitations that appear to restrict its potential distribution to temperate regions. This report describes a process used to validate codling moth (CM) world wide distribution reports. This effort will allow for the revision of distribution maps which currently indicated that CM is established in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and demonstrated how validation of pest species distribution reports can aid in establishing an argument of ecological non-adaptability. Currently, a report of CM in Peru remains the only account of this pest’s presence in countries where the climate and day length would appear to limit its ability to establish and spread.

Last Modified: 09/25/2017
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