Submitted to: Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/15/2006
Publication Date: 3/1/2007
Citation: Bhardwaj, H.L., Hamama, A.A., Dierig, D.A. 2007. Fatty acids in vernonia produced in the mid-atlantic region of usa. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc., 84:393-397. Interpretive Summary: Growing regions in the U.S. for vernonia, an alternative new oilseed crop producing an epoxy oil, need to be defined before markets for paints, plasticizers, coatings, and cosmetics can be developed. In this study, the oils of different breeding lines of this crop were analyzed to determine amounts of all fatty acids produced in the seed oil and the potential yield of the desired epoxidized fatty acid when produced in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. These results indicated that improvement in both oil and the epoxy fatty acid concentration is possible and could occur simultaneously. This information should help producers to estimate crop profits when grown in this region, seed companies deciding where optimum growing area are, as well as researchers and extension personnel in their efforts to improve this crop.
Technical Abstract: Vernonia galamensis [(Cass.) Less.] is a native of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Seed of vernonia contain substantial quantities of naturally epoxidized oil which is used in the paint industry to reduce emissions of volatile organic compounds that produce smog. Volatile organic compounds result from the use of petroleum-based (alkyd-resin) paint. Additionally epoxidized oil is used in the manufacture of plasticizers, additives to polyvinyl chloride, polymer blends and coatings, and cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. Previous research in the mid-Atlantic region of USA has indicated that vernonia has potential for commercialization in this area. Since details about the fatty acid profile of oil from vernonia are not available, objective of this study was to characterize fatty acids in oil from vernonia grown in the mid-Atlantic region of USA. Vernonia oil, from 14 vernonia lines grown during 1995 and 1996 under field conditions in Virginia, contained 3.3, 3.0, 5.0, 15.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.4, and 72.7 % respectively of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C20:0, C20:1, and vernolic (C18:1 epoxy) fatty acids. Effects of genotypes on vernonia oil quality were generally not significant whereas the effects of years were significant. Concentration of vernolic acid was positively correlated with oil concentration but negatively correlated with concentrations of all individual fatty acids, except for C18:3. The positive correlation of (r=0.34) between oil and vernolic acid concentrations indicates that both might be improved simultaneously.