Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/20/2006
Publication Date: 10/1/2006
Citation: Neven, L.G., Rehfield, L.M. 2006. Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in apples using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments. J. Econ. Entomol. 99(5): 1620-1627.
Interpretive Summary: Codling moth and oriental fruit moth are internal fruit feeding pests of quarantine concern in commercially grown apples in the United States of America. Current quarantine procedures involve either fumigation with methyl bromide or a system approach. Some countries require fumigation, which is not compliant with international organic standards. An alternative quarantine treatment was sought by the organic industry in Washington. Researchers at the USDA, ARS, Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, Wapato, Washington determined that a combination heat treatment under low oxygen and elevated carbon dioxide environment was a viable non-chemical treatment for apples. A treatment was developed using linear heating rate of 12°C/hr for 3 hours. It was determined that the 4th instar of both species was the most tolerant infestive stage, and that both species were nearly equally tolerant to one another. Efficacy tests, treating 5,000 of the most tolerant stage with zero survivors, was performed on both codling moth and oriental fruit moth using a 2 ton commercial chamber. Confirmation tests, treating 30,000 of the most tolerant stage with zero survivors, was performed on codling moth using a research chamber. This treatment may be used as a replacement to methyl bromide fumigation for conventional fruit or as a new treatment for organic fruit contingent upon importing countries approval.
Technical Abstract: Codling moth and oriental fruit moth are serious pests of apples grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where they do not appear, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent the accidental introduction of these insects. The treatment consists of hot forced moist air with a linear heating rate of 12°C/h to a final chamber temperature of 46°C under a 1% oxygen and 15% carbon dioxide environment. We found that the 4th instar of both species was the most tolerant to the treatment, with equal tolerance between the species. Efficacy tests against the 4th instar of both oriental fruit moth and codling moth using a commercial CATTS chamber resulted in over 5,000 of each species being controlled using the combination treatment. Confirmation tests against codling moth resulted in the complete mortality of over 30,000 4th instars. These treatments may be used to meet quarantine restrictions for organic apples where fumigation with methyl bromide is not desirable.