Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2006
Publication Date: 12/1/2006
Citation: Yee, W.L., Landolt, P.J., Darnell, T.J. 2006. Attraction of rhagoletis pomonella (diptera: tephritidae) and non-target flies to traps baited with ammonium carbonate and fruit volatile lures in washington and oregon. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology p. 133-149.
Interpretive Summary: Apple maggot is serious quarantine pest of apple in the Pacific Northwest, but our ability to detect the fly and thus prevent its spread is somewhat limited because an efficient trap still is not available. Personnel at the Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory in Wapato, WA and at Oregon State University in Milton-Freewater, OR, are determining the effects of ammonia and fruit volatile lures on attracting and trapping apple maggot. In repeated testing, ammonium carbonate consistently attracted more apple maggot flies than several fruit volatile lures, including the one found to be highly effective in the eastern U.S. Ammonium carbonate lures attracted many non-target flies, possibly reducing trap efficiency, but fruit volatile lures also attracted many non-target flies, although of different species. The results are important in that they show ammonia and not fruit volatiles should be used in the western U.S. for trapping apple maggot. In addition, the results indicate that more effective and selective fruit volatile blends may be needed in areas where non-target flies caught on ammonia-baited traps reduce the ease of inspections and possibly the trap efficiency for apple maggot.
Technical Abstract: The responses of apple maggot flies, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), and other Diptera to sticky red sphere or yellow panel traps baited with ammonium carbonate (AC), butyl hexanoate (BH), and two 5-component fruit volatile blends (Blend or CB) were determined in Washington and Oregon from 2003-2005. Flies were consistently more attracted to spheres and yellow panels baited with 10 or 20 g AC lures or 2 g AC lures than to controls and to those baited with BH, Blend, or CB lures. Traps baited with BH and Blend lures were more effective than controls in only a few tests. Placing BH, Blend, and CB lures on traps with AC lures sometimes reduced R. pomonella captures compared with using AC lures alone. Neither ammonium carbonate nor fruit volatiles were highly selective, as more Thaumatomyia annulata (Walker) flies (Chloropidae) and non-target medium to large flies were caught on AC-baited than on Blend- or CB-baited traps, whereas many more Oscinella flies (Chloropidae) were caught on Blend- and CB-baited traps. Results indicate that in Washington and Oregon, unlike results in the eastern U.S., AC is superior to identified fruit volatiles for attracting R. pomonella. More effective and selective fruit volatile blends may be needed in areas where non-target flies caught on AC-baited spheres reduce the ease of inspections and possibly the trap efficiency for R. pomonella.