Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/30/2005
Publication Date: 1/24/2006
Citation: Obert, D.E., Wesenberg, D.M., Burrup, D.E., Jones, B.E., Erickson, C.A. 2006. Registration of 'charles' winter malting barley. Crop Sci 46:468-469
Interpretive Summary: Historically nearly all malting barley produced in the U.S. has been spring type cultivars. All currently recommended malting barleys are spring types. A winter malting barley would have several advantages over spring cultivars: 1) inherent yield advantage, 2) additional options for barley producers as workload is distributed over a greater portion of the year, 3) a more uniform supply of barley due to earlier harvest date, and 4) better utilization of a limited water supply under irrigated production systems. Charles is a new 2-row winter malting barley that had both superior yield potential and suitable malting quality compared to spring malting barleys currently being grown in the intermountain west barley growing regions. The development and release of a winter malting barley will provide producers with additional cropping opportunities previously not available. Additionally, this cultivar represents a potential product for the malting and brewing industry. Charles was evaluated in replicated yield trials and evaluated for quality across multiple environments and years in Idaho and Oregon. This data shows that it is superior to existing winter malting barleys adapted to the intermountain west region. In Idaho, Charles is expected to be best adapted to the irrigated areas of the southern Snake River plain
Technical Abstract: 'Charles' , a 2-row winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), was developed by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Charles was named in honor of Dr. Charles 'Chuck' Murphy (deceased), former ARS National Program Leader for Small Grains. Charles is the first 2-row winter malting barley which meets current industry standards for malting and brewing quality factors. Charles was evaluated in replicated yield trials from 1998-2004. It was entered into American Malting Barley Association (AMBA) pilot scale quality evaluation trials in 2000 and 2002 and received favorable ratings for each year. Following the favorable rating in 2002 it was recommended for advancement to plant scale malting evaluation. Charles has shown excellent yield potential compared to '88Ab536-B', the only current winter barley with suitable malting quality characteristics adapted to the intermountain west area. Charles heads 3 d later than 88Ab536-B and 1 d later than Eight-Twelve. When grown under irrigation Charles is 8 and 5 cm shorter than 88Ab536-B and Eight-Twelve, respectively. Malting quality was assessed in laboratory tests at the USDA-ARS Cereal Crop Research Unit in Madison, WI and in pilot scale tests through the American Malting Barley Association (AMBA). In USDA-ARS trials from 1998-2001, 2003 Charles was superior to 88Ab536-B for malt extract, alpha amylase activity, beta glucan, wort protein, and soluble/total protein. Charles and 88Ab536-B each met acceptable industry standards for grain protein and wort color. Charles is inferior to 88Ab536-B for diastatic power. Charles was also evaluated in winter-spring drill strips with the spring 2-row malt standard Harrington. Charles was superior to Harrington for malt extract, grain protein, alpha amylase activity, diastatic power, beta glucan, and soluble/total protein. Charles and Harrington both met industry standards for wort color, and wort protein. In pilot scale testing by AMBA in 2000 and 2002 Charles was superior to 88Ab536-B for malt extract, alpha amylase activity, and percentage plump kernels. Charles and 88Ab536-B both met malt industry standards for wort color, wort protein, diastatic power, and soluble/total protein. Beta glucan levels for both Charles and 88Ab536-B were unfavorable. In Idaho, Charles is expected to be best adapted to the irrigated areas of the southern Snake River plain. It has excellent winter survival at Aberdeen in the absence of snow mold caused by Microdochium nivale (ces. Ex Berl. & Vogl.) Samuels & Hallet. Survival is significantly reduced by snow mold when extended snow cover occurs.