Submitted to: Plant Disease
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/31/2003
Publication Date: 3/31/2004
Citation: Alderman, S.C., Halse, R.R., White, J.F. 2004. A reevaluation of the host range and geographical distribution of claviceps species in the united states. Plant Disease.88:63-81. Interpretive Summary: The host and geographical distribution of Claviceps purpurea is generally known but the extent of host range and distribution of other species of Claviceps in the U.S. is not well established. A comprehensive examination of published reports and examination of specimens from numerous herbaria were conducted. A listing of host reports by state and distribution maps for each of the 10 Claviceps species identified as occurring in the U.S. were prepared. This report provides the first comprehensive summary of Claviceps species within U.S., corrects errors in previously published documents, and updates state reports of Claviceps sp. and host occurrence.
Technical Abstract: A listing of host and state reports and distribution maps for 11 taxa of Claviceps, including C. africana, C. cinerea, C. grohii, C. nigricans, C. paspali, C. pusilla, C. purpurea var. purpurea and var. spartinae, C. tripsaci, C. yanagawensis, and C. zizaniae occuring in the United States was prepared, based on literature citations and examination of specimens from herbaria. The occurrence of C. ranunculoides is questioned, based on examination of conidia and sclerotia from archived specimens. Collections of C. p. purpurea from panicod hosts were referred to other Claviceps spp., based on occurrence of macroconidia and microconidia. Claviceps purpurea var. purpurea was found on 159 grass species within the continential United States and Alaska. The size of conidia of C. p. purpurea was found to be a relatively stable attribute across host and geographical distance. However, conidia of C. p. purpurea from hosts in the Aveneae and Meliceae (generally associated with wetter habitats) were more variable in size and generally larger than those from other tribes in the Pooideae. Claviceps spp. in the U.S. occurred in a diversity of habitats, including temperate grasslands of the mid to northern U.S. latitudes (C. p. purpurea, C. nigricans), mid to southern latitudes (C. pusilla), coastal habitats (C. p. spartinae, C. zizaniae), northern wetlands (C. grohii), southern temperate to subtropical grasslands (C. africana, C. paspali, C. tripsaci, C. yanagawensis), and arid southwestern grasslands (C. cinerea).