Submitted to: International Food Technology Meeting Abstracts
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2003
Publication Date: 1/15/2004
Citation: Yoon, Y., Whetstine, C., Friedeck, K.G., Drake, M.A., Drake, S.R. 2004. Characterization of aroma active compounds in fresh sweet cherry cultivars [abstract]. International Food Technologists Meeting. July 12-13. p. 127.
Technical Abstract: Consumption of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) is increasing. Additionally, cherries are being used for additives in many products, including candy and medicine. There have been few studies that identify the flavor profiles of sweet cherries. Understanding the overall flavor profile of sweet cherries, as well as determining variation in different cultivars, is very important to meet growing markets. Our objectives were to characterize and quantify aroma-active compounds in four different cultivars of sweet cherries using both sensory and instrumental analysis. Four different cultivars of sweet cherries (Bing, Bing with gibberellic acid, Lapins, and Sweethearts) were harvested, cooled and shipped overnight from Washington State. Fresh cherries (14 kg) were juiced immediately after receiving. Descriptive sensory analysis of the sweet cherry juice was conducted along with instrumental analysis of color, soluble solids and pH. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) with a three phase fiber and solvent extraction with high vacuum distillation was used to extract both the very volatile and semi-volatile compounds. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O) with aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) were used to characterize volatile compounds. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties and GC-MS data against reference standards. Selected compounds were quantified by standard additions. All sweet cherry cultivars were characterized by green/grassy, cherry, dried/cooked fruit, and woody/pencil lead flavors as well as the basic tastes, sweet and sour. More than 100 different aroma-active compounds were detected by GC/O. Using AEDA, very high Log3 FD factors (>10) were identified for some compounds in all cherry cultivars. These compounds included methional (potato), guiacol (smoky/beefy), 2-phenyl ethanol (rosey), 4-vinylguiacol (pumpkin spice), and B-damascenone (cherry/prune) and an unknown (pencil lead). Determining the flavor profiles of sweet cherries and documenting flavor differences among cultivars are an important step in understanding sweet cherry flavor.