Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/31/2004
Publication Date: 6/10/2004
Citation: Neven, L.G., Mantey, K.D. 2004. Biology and development of the wild and golden sport of Grapholita prunivora (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae). Environmental Entomology. 33:506-512.
Interpretive Summary: Lesser appleworm is a pest in commercial apples and pears in North America. It has also been listed as a pest of quarantine concern for Europe, Mexico, and Japan. It is important to understand the basic biology of this pest in order to develop better pest management strategies to control it in the field. Scientists at the USDA, ARS, Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory identified a golden color variant, called a sport, and colonized it in the laboratory. The development and reproductive success of this sport was compared to the wild type colored colony, and it was determined to be less fecund than the wild type colony. The egg developmental stages, larval developmental stages, and adult longevity and mating success of these colonies were recorded. This information on biology and life history of the lesser appleworm can benefit future decision-making in developing integrated pest management strategies against this pest.
Technical Abstract: The development of the lesser appleworm, Grapholita prunivora (Walsh), was studied using immature apples as the food source. Degree-hour developmental rates for all life stages were calculated. Developmental rates in degree-hours at 25 degrees C for the egg, four larval instars, pupae, and adults were 1503 (4 days), first larval ecdysis 1109 (3 days post-hatch), second larval ecdysis 1941 (5 days post-hatch), third larval ecdysis 3186 (8 days post-hatch), pupation 5196 (13 days post-hatch), and adult 8925 (22 days post-hatch), respectively. Comparisons of growth, survival, and reproduction were made between two different populations, the wild type and a golden color sport.