Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/20/2003
Publication Date: 8/20/2003
Citation: Yokoyama, V.Y. 2003. Quarantine control of hessian fly (diptera: cecidomyiidae) in exported hay: a new treatment for large-size, polypropylene fabric-wrapped bales and a three day fumigation for compressed standard bales. Journal of Economic Entomology. Volume(96):1340-1344.
Interpretive Summary: A new baling technique for exported hay was developed by the hay industry. The technique produces from chopped and compressed hay, a large-size bale that is wrapped with polypropylene fabric. Japan is the primary market for the new product. However, Japan requires that imported hay be certified free of Hessian fly, a U.S. pest that threatens their agriculture. A quarantine treatment consisting of bale compression and phosphine fumigation was proposed to control potential infestations of Hessian fly in the large-size bales. For approval, the quarantine treatment needed testing according to requirements by the Japan Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Therefore, a large-scale commercial test was conducted to confirm the efficacy of the quarantine treatment using three freight containers of large-size, polypropylene fabric-wrapped bales of hay containing 37,100 Hessian fly puparia in December 2001. The test fulfilled in part the requirements for approval to export the large-size bales to Japan. In addition, a 3-d phosphine fumigation of compressed standard bales was tested in a large-scale commercial test to determine the efficacy of the shortened fumigation period to control Hessian fly in small-bales of exported hay. The research supports a $330 million annual market of hay exports to Asia and the development of methods to improve sanitation and facilitate handling of exported hay.
Technical Abstract: Hessian fly puparia (37,167), Mayetiola destructor (Say), did not survive a large-scale commercial test (3 freight containers) of a new quarantine treatment using compression (32 kg/cm2) and hydrogen phosphide fumigation (61 g/28.2m3) for large-size, polypropylene fabric-wrapped bales of hay exported to Japan. Mean and SEM temperatures in the large-size bales in different locations in the freight containers ranged from 18.0 and 0.9 to 26.0 and 1.3oC during the 7-d test conducted in a heated building at 20.1 and 1.1oC. Highest concentrations of hydrogen phosphide in most locations in the freight containers were observed after 3 d of fumigation and ranged from 366.7 and 96.1 to 425.0 and 162.7 (mean + SEM) and throughout the 7 d of fumigation ranged from 253.6 and 59.9 to 407.1 and 76.5 ppm (mean + SEM). Hydrogen phosphide residues after fumigation and aeration were <10 ppb and below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tolerance of 0.1 ppm in animal feeds. The results of the test fulfills regulatory agency testing requirements and confirms the efficacy of the treatment to control Hessian fly in large-size, polypropylene fabric-wrapped bales of hay. Hessian fly puparia (2,160) did not survive a large-scale commercial test of compression (105 kg/cm2) and a 3-d hydrogen phosphide (60 g/28.3 m3) fumigation for standard bales.