Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


item Slama, Karel
item Neven, Lisa

Submitted to: Journal of Insect Physiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/22/2001
Publication Date: 9/1/2001
Citation: Slama, K., Neven, L.G. 2001. Active regulation of respiration and circulation in pupae of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). Journal of Insect Physiology. 47:1321-1336.

Interpretive Summary: Understanding how insects breathe is a fundamental of insect physiology. Through the use of sophisticated electronic monitoring devices, it has been determined that the pupae of codling moth actively regulate the intake of air and expiration of carbon dioxide. The interaction of the heart (dorsal aorta) in bathing the tissues along with tracheal ventilation during pupal development is described and discussed. A popular theory of insect respiration, described by Krough nearly 80 years ago, is refuted with the results of this research.

Technical Abstract: Regulation of autonomic physiological functions has been investigated by means of multisensor methods. It has been found that the pupae of Cydia exhibit continuous respiration without remarkable bursts of CO 2 . The dorsal vessel of these pupae exhibited regular heartbeat reversals characterized by shorter intervals of faster pulsations and longer intervals of slower peristaltic waves. The internal physiological mechanisms regulating the cardiac and extracardiac pulsations were completely independent for a major part of the pupal instar. The method of simultaneous multisensor analysis revealed that the anterograde heartbeat of dorsal vessel had similar but not identical frequency with EHP. During advanced pharate adult development, the density of cardiac pulsation periods profoundly increased until almost uninterrupted pulsation activity towards adult eclosion. The cardiac pulsations performed in concert, which considerably enhanced the efficacy of hemolymph circulation in pharate adults with high metabolic rates. The fastest hemolymph flow through the main body cavity was associated with EHP and with anterograde heartbeat. Several kinds of regulated, mechanical ventilations of the tracheal system, including EHP are responsible for effective tracheal ventilation.

Last Modified: 10/16/2017
Footer Content Back to Top of Page